1st National Conference on Technology

Paper Type :: Research Paper
Title :: Study on Natural Frequencies due to Inclined Crack with Variable Angles of Inclination and Varying Crack Depths using Numerical and Experimental Method
Country :: India
Authors :: A. Sonawane Shashank C. || Mohammad Faisal Ansari || Zulfiqar Ansari
Page No. :: 01-06

An important assignment for engineers is to determine the effect of the damage like inclined cracks on the stability characteristic of beam structure. The Cracks in vibrating component can initiate disastrous failures. The presences of cracks change the physical characteristics of a structure which in turn alter its dynamic response characteristics. Therefore there is need to understand dynamics of cracked structures. This paper focuses on the vibration analysis of a beam with fixed free boundary condition and investigates the mode shape and its frequency. Finite element analysis using ANSYS software is adopted for the dynamic behavior of the beam. Variations of natural frequencies due to inclined crack with variable angles of inclination and with varying crack depths have been studied. After that the experimentation is carried out to verify Numerical Analysis.

Keyword : ANSYS, Cantilever Beam, Inclined crack, Mode shape, Natural Frequency, Simply Supported Beam.

[1]. D.Y. Zheng ,N.J. Kessissoglou "Free vibration analysis of a cracked beam by finite element method", Journal of Sound and Vibration (2004), pp.457–475
[2]. Dayal. R. Parhi, Prases. K. Mohanty, Sasmita Sahu , Amiya Kumar Dash, "Identification of Crack Location and Magnitude in Beam Type Structure Using Finite Element Method", International Journal of Applied Artificial Intelligence in Engineering System 3(1), 2011, pp. 35-41
[3]. Kaustubha V. Bhinge, P. G. Karajagi, Swapnil S.Kulkarni "Crack detection in cantilever beam by vibration Techniques", International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Studies, July-Sept.,2014,pp.80-86
[4]. Malay Quila, Prof. Samar Ch. Mondal, Prof. Susenjit Sarkar, "Free Vibration Analysis of an Un-cracked & Cracked Fixed Beam", IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Volume 11, Issue 3 Ver. III (May- Jun. 2014), pp. 76-83
[5]. Ranjan K. Behera, Anish Pandey, Dayal R. Parhi, "Numerical and Experimental Verification of a Method for Prognosis of Inclined Edge Crack in Cantilever Beam Based on Synthesis of Mode Shapes", ICIAME, Procedia Technology , ( 2014 ), pp.67-74

Paper Type :: Research Paper
Title :: Comparative Dynamic Analysis of Upturned and Berlin Eye Mono Leaf Spring
Country :: India
Authors :: Furquan Ak. || Abdul Basit || Affan Ather || Sk. Parvez || Md. Ahmed || K. K. Sharma
Page No. :: 07-11

In thisresearch work, study is carried out on mono steel leaf springs used by commercial vehicles. The chief thought behind this work is to examine the dynamic behavior of two leaf springs one having Upturned eye of Maxi Truck and one having Berlin eye of Maxi T-Plus, both is having similar parameters i.e. width, thickness, eye diameter, length, radius of curvature, camber & load carrying capacity. The material used for the deuce is 0.9% carbon steel with almost similar properties. The modal analysis is accomplished theoretically for determining the natural frequency of both the springs for first five mode shapes. To validate the theoretical modal analysis, modal analysis will be conducted with aid of simulation by FEA. Modeling will be finished by using Pro-E 4.0 and analysis on Pro-E Mechanica Platform. The result of all deuce-ace analyzed operations almost coincides and compared. From the outcomes we can say that there is almost no effect of eye conditions on modal frequencies.

Keywords: Berlin eye,upturned eye, Finite Element Analysis,Modal analysis, Mode shapes

[1]. Prof. K. K. Sharma,2Khan Moin,3Abdul Ashish, 4Choudhri Ibrahim, 5Rehan Ansari (2018) Modal Analysis of Mono Leaf Spring, Using Analytical, F.E.A (Pro-e Mechanica) and Experimental (Vibration Shaker) Approach, 6th International Conference on Recent Trends in Engineering & Technology (ICRTET - 2018)
[2]. Mohammed I. Hameed, Dhia A. Alazawi, Zaid S. Hammoudi (2018), Finite Element Analysis of Steel and Composite Leaf Springs Under Static Loading, International Scientific Conference of Engineering Sciences - 3rd Scientific Conference of Engineering Science (ISCES) 2018

Paper Type :: Research Paper
Title :: Fabrication of Aluminium Can Crusher by Hydraulic System
Country :: India
Authors :: Mayur Raundal || Akram Shaikh || Aqueel Shaikh || ChetanMokasare || Aditya Bhavsar || Prof. Rizwan Shaikh
Page No. :: 12-17

Nowadays in India, recycling is one of the areas which are rapidly increasing day by day. Amount of waste coming is in tremendous quantity. Aluminium cans are one of the important products which is being recycled on an increasing scale. For carrying out this recycling can crushers are used. For recycling of these cans, manual operation is being carried out in industries, which is a time consuming process and ultimately it leads to the reduction of production rate. In order to crush the cans in a less time, we are designing a can crusher machine using a hydraulic cylinder having one side cushioning ability. A can crusher machine is used for crushing aluminium soda cans for recycling purpose and also for easy storage in recycling bins. The Cylinder is reciprocate horizontally by a hydraulic pressure to crush the different shapes cans , this is the principle which we are using in our can crusher.

Keywords: 3/4Direction Control Valve, Actuator( Single Acting Cylinder), Empty Cans, Pressure Relief valve, Pressure Gauge, Centrifugal Pump, Funnel, Reservoir

[1]. Kevin W. Schellet.al2002. ,Electric Aluminium Can Crusher, Patent Application Publication,United States, ,
[2]. John S. Fletcheret.al1991 ,Apparatus Having Pivotable Arm For Crushing Cans, United States Patent,UnitedStates,.
[3]. SeijaSinkkonen et.al 2004.,Screening of Halogenated Aromatic Compounds in Some raw material lots for an Aluminium Recycling Plant,EnvironmentalInternational,Heinola Finland .
[4]. H. M. El-Zomoret.al,2013.Enhancement in a Mechatronic Aluminium Beverage Cans Recycling Machine,International Journal of Optomechatronics,UniversitatRoviravirgili
[5]. SenthilKannanet.al2016,Design of Mechanical Crushing Machine,International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology(IRJET),Tamil Nadu,India.

Paper Type :: Research Paper
Title :: Metal Matrix Nano-Composite Reinforced by Graphene- A Review
Country :: India
Authors :: Aakif Anjum || AhireTushar B. || Upadhye Vishal S. || DeoreAkash D. || Bhamre Sameer A. || BramhankarDevendra S
Page No. :: 18-22

Graphene has exceptionalpropertieslike high strength, greatelectrical and thermal conductivitywhichmakeit an idealreinforcement formaking a composite material. But development of advancedmaterialslike new metal matrix nano-composites for the enhancement of thermal, electrical and mechanicalpropertiesis a priority for numerous industries because of the rapidprogress of technology in recentyears. The researchwork on metal matrix nano-composite reinforced by graphene willbesummarized in thisreviewpaper.

Keywords: composite, graphene, mechanical, metal matrix, thermal

[1]. A.K. Geim and K.S, Novoselove, Nature Material Vol 6 183-191 (2007)
[2]. Miao Wang, Yu Zhao, Li-Dong Wang, Yun-Peng Zhu, Xiao-Jun Wang,Jie Sheng, Zi-Yue Yang, Hai-Long Shi, Zhen-Dong Shi, Wei-Dong Fei, Achieving high strength and ductility in graphene/magnesiumcomposite via an in-situ reaction wetting process, Carbon 139 (2018)
[3]. Zhou, W., Fan, Y., Feng, X., Kikuchi, K., Nomura, N., Kawasaki, A., Creation of individualfew-layer graphene incorporated in an aluminum matrix, Composites: Part A (2018)
[4]. Z. Hu, G. Tong, D. Lin, C. Chen, H. Guo, J. Xu & L. Zhou, Graphenereinforcedmetal matrix nanocomposites – a review, Materials Science and Technology(2016)
[5]. Li, C., Xiang, M., Ye, L., Intercalation Structure and Highly Enhancing TribologicalPerformance of Monomer Casting Nylon-6/Graphene Nano-composites, Composites: Part A (2017)

Paper Type :: Research Paper
Title :: Semi-Automatic Gear Shifter Based On Pneumatic
Country :: India
Authors :: Abu Osama || ShadabShaikh || ShahezadPatel || AadilShaikh || Yaser Altamsh
Page No. :: 23-28

Gear shifting mechanism was applied to make the shifting process faster and less disturbance for the driver. The new device must be reliable with small dimensions, low construction and maintenance cost. This papers aims to improve gear shifting process using devices such as a manual four speed gear box, two pneumatic double acting cylinders, two pneumatic two position five ways DCV (Direction Control Valve) According to suggested gear shifting method the driver can select the transmission gear ratio without moving his hands from the steering wheel by putting the gear shifting push buttons on the steering wheel. This method leaves to the driver an excitement of choosing the shifting moment. The standing mechanism is achieved by reciprocating the double acting cylinder which controlled by 5/2 way DCV. This actuated through the dash board panel in front of driver through the buttons. Our idea is to convert manual gear shifting to semi-automatic gear shiftin.

Keywords:Gear shifting, Speed gear box, manual gear shifting

[1]. P.Alexander M.E, T. Sudha M.E,M. Omamageswari M.E, "Automatic Gear Transmission in Two Wheelers using Embedded System", J of IJARET, Volume 3, Issue 2, July-December (2012), pp. 164-175.
[2]. Chunsheng Ni, Tongli Lu, Jianwu Zhang, School of Mechanical Engineering, State Key Laboratory for IJSER International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research Volume 8, Issue 6, June-2017 22 ISSN 2229-5518 IJSER © 2017 http://www.ijser.org Mechanical System and Vibration Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dong Chuan Road, Shanghai, 200240 China, "Gearshift control for dry dual-clutch transmissions"
[3]. Pettersson, M.; Nielsen, L. Gear shifting by engine control. IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol. 2000, 8, 495–507.
[4]. Inalpolat. M. and A. Kahraman, 2008. "Dynamic modelling of planetary gears of automatic transmissions. Proc. I Mech E Part D",J. Automobile,Eng., 222: 229-242.
[5]. Glielmo, L., L. Lannelli and V. Vacca, 2006. "Gearshift control for automated manual transmissions", IEEE/ASME Tran. Mech., 11(1): 17- 25

Paper Type :: Research Paper
Title :: Design And Fabrication of Peristaltic Pump
Country :: India
Authors :: Shukla Shivam D || Jadhav Chatursing P || Chaudhari Lalit S || Ahire Pritam D || Sheikh Taufiq || Prof. Mohammad Faisal Ansari
Page No. :: 29-31

The main objective for this research is to design and develop a rotary peristaltic pump. This type of pump is hard to find on the market and also very rare. However, this pump has a wide application in medical sector. In order to prototype a peristaltic pump, its basic concept and function must be understood. The scope of this research are to design the pump for fabrication and determining the component that will be apply on the pump. Then engineering analysis and testing is done on the prototype to test its functionality. This prototype was successfully prototype with all the systematics plans and procedures .This prototype weight is 4 kilograms, long 25 cm, height 22.5 cm and width 18 cm. This project basically use mild steel angle bar and aluminium and powered by an electric motor. Improvement to the part of the pump like housing and motor are recommended for further stage of the study.

Keywords- peristaltic pumps, Newtonian, and Non-Newtonian fluid,

[1]. WILIAM F. KAHLER – peristaltic pump with tube holding mechanism (US4925376 a)
[3]. HENRIC EJSING' peristaltic pump' an answer to increasing demand within the biopharma industry, europian industrial pharmacy, issue 6 June 2010
[4]. Negi el abbasi fluid structural interaction analysis of peristaltic pump, 12 November 2013
[5]. MICHEL SMITH ENGINEERS,LTD. How peristaltic pump works

Paper Type :: Research Paper
Title :: Aluminium 6061 Reinforced with Graphene Nano-Particles for Aeronautical Applications
Country :: India
Authors :: Ansari Abullais || Ansari Abdul Mannan Saeed || Ansari Md. Tarique
Page No. :: 32-38

Composite materials are frequently chosen for engineering applications because they have desirable combination of mechanical characteristics. Development of hybrid metal matrix composites has become an important area of research interest in material science. In this project a modest attempt has been made to develop Aluminium 6061 based Graphene Nano particulate MMCs. The Aluminium based Graphene nano-particulate MMCs are finding increased application in aerospace, automobile, space, underwater and transportation applications because of its light weight and Non-reactive nature. In this project, an effort is make to enhance the mechanical properties of AMCs by reinforcing Aluminium matrix with varying weight proptions of Graphene nano-particals...........

Keywords: Aluminium 6061 ,Composite Material, Graphene Nano Particle,Nano Technology

[1]. Sunil Kumar "Graphene Engendered aluminium crystal growth and mechanical properties of its composite: An atomistic investigation" CSIR-National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur, 831007, India.
[2]. Linghui Yang et.al. "Fabrication and corrosion resistance of a graphene-tin oxide composite film on aluminium alloy 6061" Shanghai Key Laboratory of Materials Protection and Advanced Materials in Electric Power, Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Energy-Saving in Heat Exchange Systems, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai 200090, China.
[3]. D.V.Lohar "Literature Review of Graphene Composites" International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology An ISO 3297: 2007 Certified Organization Volume 6, Special Issue 1, January 2017 International Conference on Recent Trends in Engineering and Science (ICRTES 2017)20th-21st January 2017 Organized by Research Development Cell, Government College of Engineering, Jalagon (M. S), India.
[4]. Prashantha Kumar "Processing and Characterization of Al 6061 – Graphene Nanocomposites" Juniour research fellow Professor School for Mechanical engineering, VIT University, Vellore-632014, India.

Paper Type :: Research Paper
Title :: Green Energy Roads
Country :: India
Authors :: Shahzad Anjum || Vivek Welis || Aadil Khaleel || Aamir Zakir
Page No. :: 39-43

In order to satisfy the rising energy demands of global consumption, a new cleaner and renewable power source needs to be explored, conceptualized and developed. This paper attempts to show how electricity produces using the stress experienced by the roads due to the movement of automobiles and pedestrians is proposed. An energy generator comprising a generally flat and partially flexible traffic surfaces.In this paper the comparision between diffrent methods of production of electricity using vibration on road are shown. The Road Power Generation (RPG) is one of the most recent power generation concepts. It is best source of energy that we get in day to day life so that this system does not require any external input energy source.

Keywords : Crank mechanism, Dynamo cell, piezoelectric material, Rack and Pinion mechanism, Stiffness of spring, Vertical motion delivery mechanism.

[1]. Harper, Douglas. "piezoelectric". Online Etymology Dictionary.
[2]. Gautschi, G (2002). Piezoelectric Sensorics: Force, Strain, Pressure, Acceleration and Acoustic Emission Sensors, Materials and Amplifiers.. Springer.
[3]. Prof. Haim Abramovich and Dr. lucy edery azulay "Innowatech Energy Harvesting Systems" Technion city, Technion I.I.T, Haifa 32000, Israel.
[4]. Mukherjee, D., Chakrabarti, S., Fundamentals of renewable energy systems, New Age international limited publishers, New Delhi, 2005.
[5]. Raja, A.K., Non-conventional power engineering, Public printing service, New Delhi, 2007.

Paper Type :: Research Paper
Title :: A Review Paper on Design and Fabrication of Gearless Power Transmission for Skew Shafts
Country :: India
Authors :: Md Nafees Khan || Zulfequar Ansari || Md Trique || Nashit Khan || Ahmad Omair || Md Abdullah
Page No. :: 44-46

Today's world requires speed in all fields. Therefore, speed and quick work are the most important. Now the days to reach speed,different machines and equipment are man-made. The engineer has managed incongruous challenges to bring ideas and design closer to reality. New machines and techniques are continuously developed to produce various products at cheaper and high-quality rates. The GEARLESS TRANSMISSION project is a compact and portable device, which is skilled and has something precise to transmit power at a right angle without tools in production

Keywords- Gearless mechanism, Skew shaft Component of the model and its operation, Design of Shaft, Hub, Elbow.

[1]. International Journal Of Core Engineering & Management (IJCEM), Volume 1, Issue 6, September 2014, Analysis and Simulation of Gearless Transmission Mechanism, Navneet Bardiya, karthik.T, L Bhaskara Rao
[2]. A. Kumar and S. Das, "An arrangement for power transmission between co-axial shafts of different diameter", International journal of engineering research and technology , ISSN: 78-0181, vol. 4, (2015) January.
[3]. Gearless Power Transmission for Skew Shafts (A SRRS Mechanism), Amit Kumar and Mukesh Kumar
[4]. International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 6, Issue 7, July-2015, ISSN 2229-551, IJSER © 2015, Multiangular gearless system, Ashish Kumar, Punit Pawar
[5]. PSG Design data book

Paper Type :: Research Paper
Title :: Pyrolysis of Waste Tyres to Fuel Oil
Country :: India
Authors :: Khan Afaque || Md. Sahil || Sk. Mazhar || Abdul Rahman || Sk. Saeed
Page No. :: 47-48

Living way, the quality and quantity of life and progress of a country lies on its total capita energy usage. Renewable Energy giving that mainly follows on fossil fuel is decreasing day by day. Pyrolysis behaviour of a single waste tyre wasinvestigated. The influence of temperature(350°C-400°C) and without oxygen content in gas on combustion behaviour of tire sample product and solid samples product of pyrolysis process was studied. The primary objectives ofthis work was studied to illustrate the conversion of scrap tires toTPO(Tyre Pyrolysis Oil). Different Purification method like distillation, Catalytic reaction, adsorption, moisture removal, desulfurization, Vacuum distillation etc. methods were studied for TPO purification. Different parameters like density, viscosity, flash point,cloud point, proximate and ultimateanalysis of oil wasstudied At the end it was studied that it will be possible to use scrap tyre pyrolysis oil in fuel engines by comparing the property of TPO and purified fuel oil with diesel, in using waste tyre

Keywords:Pyrolysis, purified oil

[1]. Rai G D. Non-Conventional Energy Sources. 5th ed. India: khanna publisher; 2011.
[2]. Pakdel H, Roy C, Aubin H, Jean G, Coulombe S. Formation of dl-limonene in used tyre vacuum pyrolysis oils. Environmental Science and Technology 1991; 25: 1646-1649.
[3]. Mirmiran S, Pakdel H, Roy C. Characterization of used tyre vacuum pyrolysis oil. Nitrogenous compounds from the naphtha fraction. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis 1992; 22: 205-215.
[4]. Roy C, Chaala A, Darmstadt H. The vacuum pyrolysis of used tyres en-uses for oil and carbon black products. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis1999; 51: 201-221.

Paper Type :: Research Paper
Title :: Reel Lawn Mower
Country :: India
Authors :: ShahrukhKhatik || Sayyad Obaid || Mohammad Mustafa || Maaz Omair || Muddassir Nazar
Page No. :: 49-53

Now a day's grass cutting is important task in agriculture field. Currently in India former used conventional method for the grass cutting purpose. I.e. manually cutting using labor but this method is lengthy and time consuming. This project aim is to design and fabrication of small field grass cutter machine for small height grass. The machine consists of electric motor to operate cutting roller and blade. When compare to manual grass cutting by and this machine has a capacity to cut the grass in faster. This project is to fabricate a grass cutter with helix shaped blade. The design objective is to come up with a mower that is portable, durable, easy to operate and maintain. In our project we............

Keyword: cost effective, cutting blade, environment friendly, lawn mower, motor.

[1]. Ms. Bhagyashri R. Patil, Mr. Sagar S. Patil.Solar Based Grass Cutting in International Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IJEEE). January-June 2017.
[2]. BidgarPravinDilip, Nikhil BapuPagar, Vickey S. Ugale, SandipWani, Prof. Sharmila M. Design and Implementation of Automatic Solar Grass Cutter in International Journal of Advanced Research in Electrical(IJARE). Vol.6, April 2017.
[3]. Srishti Jain, Amar Khalore, ShashikantPatil. Self-Efficient and Sustainable Solar Powered Robotic Lawn Mower in International Journal of Trend in Research and Development(IJTRD). Vol.2 (6), December 2015.
[4]. Non-Conventional Energy sources by G.D.RAI, Khanna Publishers]

Paper Type :: Research Paper
Title :: Design and Development of Hydraulic Pipe Bending Machine
Country :: India
Authors :: Momin Abdullah || Ansari Altamash || Abdulrahman || Sumaid || Ansari Mudassir
Page No. :: 54-56

The design of pipe bending machine has undergone many changes, development and improvements over a period of time. Bending of pipe plays an important role in many of the industries, instruments, transporting of fluids, etc. Keeping in mind the requirement of bend pipe in various fields we have designed a hydraulic pipe bending machine which can be used at construction sites, small scale industries etc. with less cost compared to the existing bending machines in the market, and it also increases the productivity of the bend pipes. The important parameters to be considered in pipe bending are Radius of bend, Angle of bend, Diameter of pipe, and thickness of the pipe. The concept of press bending is used to perform the operation and the required pressing force is applied with help of single acting hydraulic jack. This type of pipe bender is used to bend a round pipe of outer diameter within the range of ½ inch to 3 inches, maximum thickness 3 mm and radius of curvature up to 325 mm with maximum 90 bend angle.

Keywords: Bending Machine, bending pipe , hydraulic jack, angle of bend

[1]. P. S. Thakare, P. G. Mehar, Dr. A. V. Vanalkar and Dr. C. C. Handa, "Productivity Analysis of Manually Operated And Power Operated Sheet Bending Machine: A Comparative Study", International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA), ISSN: 2248-9622, Vol. 2, Issue 2, Mar-Apr 2012, PP.111-114.
[2]. V.Senthil Raja,R.Maguteeswaran, C. Karthik, S.Rajarajan and D. Shanmuga Vadivel, "A New Model in Design and Manufacturing of Mobile Hydraulic Pipe Bending Machine in Industry", International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT), ISSN: 2278-0181, Vol. 3 Issue 1, January – 2014 PP 2706-2713.
[3]. H. A. Hussain, M. Sohail Pervez, Md. Naushad Alam and Atul. P. Ganorkar, "Design and Development of Bicycle Integrated Pipe Bending Machine", IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering (IOSRJMCE), e-ISSN: 2278-1684, p-ISSN: 2320-334X, 2014, PP 24-28

Paper Type :: Research Paper
Title :: Reduction of Carbon Di Oxide (Co2) In Specific Area
Country :: India
Authors :: Tauqueer Azhar || Aakif Anjum || Faisal Ansari || Ansari Faheem
Page No. :: 57-61

Carbon di oxide captured from air would reduce the effect of carbon di oxide emission to the atmosphere .We are presented a specific approach in which common salt is utilized and electrolysis is conducted. After electrolysis, Sodium Hydroxide is formed which react with carbon di oxide captured from air or reciprocating compressor and we will get washing soda as a byproduct. Washing soda can be used as house hold uses as well as many industrial uses. Thus through this project not only harmful carbon di oxide is reduced from the air and useful product is also obtained

Keywords- Brine Solution, Carbon Di Oxide, Chamber, Valve, Reactions

[1]. AakifAnjum, Mukes, Mohite, Suhas, Sawant. (2018). Graphene/MoS2 Based RF-NEMS Switches for Low Actuation Voltage and Enhanced RF-Performance.IEEE Xplore, 1-7. 10.1109/ICCCNT.2018.8494166.
[2]. AakifAnjum, Mukes, Mohite, Suhas, Sawant (2018). Analytical and Numerical Modeling of Graphene based RF-NEMS Switch. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. 455. 012110. 10.1088/1757-899X/455/1/012110.
[3]. AakifAnjum, Mukes, Mohite, Suhas, Sawant (2018). Modeling and Analysis of Low Voltage, High Isolation Capacitive Type RF MEMS Switches.IEEE Xplore, 1-6. 10.1109/ICCCNT.2018.8493891.
[4]. AakifAnjum, Mukesh, Mohite, Suhas, Sawant (2018). "Graphene/MoS2 based fix-fix type RF-NEMS switches-A simulation study"Advances in Engineering Design, 10.1007/978-981-13-6469-3
[5]. Wright, Stephen "Norval valve performance" .Northvale Korting,Retrieved 19/05/2009.