2nd International Conference On Innovative Data Science

Paper Type :: Research Paper
Title :: Content Based Image Retrieval Methods and System For Medical Images
Country :: India
Authors :: Dr.N.Krishnaveni
Page No. :: 01-09
In recent decades , the increased usage and availability of digital cameras has created a vast amount of new information captured in the form of digital images. These images have been given an unprecedented level of accessibility through the internet and sharing in social media. With large image databases becoming a reality both in scientific and medical domains and in the vast advertising/marketing domains, methods for organizing a database of images and for efficient retrieval have become important. The field of representing, organizing and searching images based on their content rather than image annotations. Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) is one of the outstanding areas in Computer Vision and Image Processing. Content Based Image Retrieval Systems retrieve images from that database which are similar to the query image..............

Keyword :Content Based Image Retrieval, CBIR, Imaging Informatics, Information Storage and Retrieval, Image Segmentation, Feature Extraction.

[1]. C.B.Akgul,etal.,"Content-Based Image Retrieval in Radiology:Current Status and Future Directions",Journalof Digital Imaging,Vol.24,No.2, pp.208-222,2011.
[2]. D.Demner Fushman, S.Antani, G.R.Thoma,"Automatically Finding Images for Clinical Decision Support",Seventh IEEEConference on DataMining Workshops(ICDMW2007),pp.139-144,2007.
[3]. Y. Liu, D. Zhang, G. Lu, W.Y. Ma, "A Survey of Content Based Image Retrieval with High Level Semantics", PatternRecogn.,Vol.40,pp. 262-82,2007.
[4]. D.Brahmi,D.Ziou,"Improving CBIR Systems by Integrating Semantic Features", 1stCanadian Conference on Computer and RobotVision,2004.
[5]. T. Weidong Cai, D. Dagan Feng, "Content Based Medical Image Retrieval",University of Sydney and Hong Kong Polytechnic University,2008.

Paper Type :: Research Paper
Title :: A Study of Pattern Recognition with Wildcard Algorithmic Rule
Country :: India
Authors :: D.Ananthi
Page No. :: 10-13

This paper expresses the fundamentals of Wildcard algorithmic rule and the way it's helpful for recognizing pattern. Pattern recognition could be a root of computer science and branch of machine learning that emphasizes the knowledge information patterns or data regularities during a given state of events. The single wildcard defines to match any one character in a sequence. The Multiple wildcards is defines to match more than one character in a sequence. The Multiple Wildcards form a gap. The length of a flexible gap is arbitrary. The objective of this paper is to summarize and compare some pattern recognition techniques included in Wildcard algorithms.

Keywords: Wildcard Characters, Wildcard Gap, Constraints, Matching.

[1]. Moreau, P.E., Ringeissen, C., Vittek, M.: A Pattern Matching Compiler for Multiple Target Languages. In: In Proc. of Compiler Construction (CC), volume 2622 of LNCS. (2003) 61–76.
[2]. Oderksy, M., Wadler, P.: Pizza into Java: Translating theory into practice. In: Proc. of Principles of Programming Languages (POPL). (1997).
[3]. Zenger, M., Odersky, M.: Extensible Algebraic Datatypes with Defaults. In: Proc. of Int. Conference on Functional Programming (ICFP). (2001).
[4]. G. Navarro, "Flexible pattern matching," in Journal of Applied Statistics. Citeseer, 2002.
[5]. S. Neuburger, "Pattern matching algorithms: An overview," 2009.

Paper Type :: Research Paper
Title :: Cloud Computing
Country :: India
Authors :: Mrs.S.Leelavathi
Page No. :: 14-15
The term "Cloud Computing" is recent but the idea of centralizing computation and storage in distributed data centers maintained by third party companies is not new but it came in way back in 1990s along with distributed computing approaches like grid computing. It is providing IT as a service to the cloud users ondemand basis with greater flexibility, availability, reliability and scalability with utility computing model. The third-party computing capability over the network is a good way to cut costs, increase scale, and improve agility. The concept of cloud computing involves a data center somewhere in the world, or even multiple data centers scattered around the world. This is a paradigm shift from the historical client server architecture where the network users owned, maintained, and operated their own network infrastructure, server rooms, data servers, and applications


[1]. X. Chu, K. Nadiminti, C. Jin, S. Venugopal,andR. Buyya. Aneka: Next-Generation Enterprise Grid Platform for e-Science and e- Business Applications. In Proceedings of the 3th IEEE International Conference on e-Science and Grid Computing (e-Science 2007), Bangalore, India, Dec. 2007.
[2]. Sun network.com (Sun Grid), http://www.network.com [18 July 2008].
[3]. Microsoft Live Mesh, http://www.mesh.com[18 July 2008].
[4]. Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud(EC2), http://www.amazon.com/ec2/ [18 July 2008].
[5]. www.wikipedia.com.

Paper Type :: Research Paper
Title :: Study on Fifth Generation Wireless Technology (5G)
Country :: India
Authors :: Ms.Abinaya.R
Page No. :: 16-23

Now a days the world isgrowing fast to the new technology in mobile communication.The 5G mobile communication system provides a far higher level of performance then the previous generation of mobile communication system.The new technology is not just a next version of mobile communications, evolving from 1G to 2G, 3G, 4G and now 5G. Instead of 4G, 5G technology is very different. Previous system had evolver driven more by what could be done with the last technology. In this paper an attempt has been made to provide an over view of evolution of mobile generation, concept of 5G, requirements, features, benefits, and hardware and software requirements.

Keywords: Network, 5G, Technology, Challenges, Applications, Hardware and software.

[1]. Ms.AnjuUttamGawas, An overview of mobile wireless communication networks Volume 3.
[2]. Qualcomm,'The evaluation of Mobile Technologies: 1G, 2G, 3G, 4G LTE'. June 2014.
[3]. P.Schulz et al. ''Latency critical IOT applications in 5G: perspective on the Design Of Radio Interface and Network Architecture''.
[4]. Ms.Neha Dumber, 5G wireless technology.
[5]. E. Ezhilarasan and M. Dinakaran,'A review on mobile technologies: 3G, 4G and 5G'. 2017. Second International Conference on Recent Trends and Challenges in Computational Models. ISBN: 978-1-5090-4799-4

Paper Type :: Research Paper
Title :: To Determine Patterns from Source Code Mining
Country :: India
Authors :: Prof. M. MUTHALAGU
Page No. :: 24-29

This paper surveys the tools and techniques which rely only on data mining methods to determine patterns from source code in context of programming, bug detection, maintenance, program understanding and software reuse. The work provides comparison and evaluation of the current state-of-the-art source code mining tools and techniques, and organizes the large amount of information into a coherent conceptual way. Thus the survey provides researchers with a concise overview of source code mining techniques and assists practitioners the selection of appropriate techniques for their work. The result of this review shows existing studies focus on one specific pattern being mined from source code such as special kind of bug detection. Hence there is a strong need of tool which helps in developing quality software by automatically detecting different kind of bugs in one pass and also provides code reusability for the developers.

Keywords: Source code mining; literature review; Programming rule; Copy-paste code; API usage

[1]. A. Hassan, and T. Xie, "Mining software engineering data," in Proceedings of the 32nd ACM/IEEE International Conference on Software Engineering-Volume 2, 2010, pp. 503-504.
[2]. D. Engler, D. Chen, S. Hallem et al., "Bugs as deviant behavior: A general approach to inferring errors in systems code," ACM SIGOPS Operating Systems Review, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 57-72, 2001.
[3]. Z. Li, and Y. Zhou, "PR-Miner: Automatically extracting implicit programming rules and detecting violations in large software code," in Proceedings of the 10th European software engineering conference held jointly with 13th ACM SIGSOFT international symposium on Foundations of software engineering, 2005, pp. 306-315.
[4]. M. Ramanathan, A. Grama, and S. Jagannathan, "Path-sensitive inference of function precedence protocols," in 29th International Conference on Software Engineering ( ICSE 2007), 2007, pp. 240-250.

Paper Type :: Research Paper
Title :: Gloss of Content Based Image Retrieval Search Engines
Country :: India
Authors :: N.Parvin || Dr.P.Kavitha
Page No. :: 30-38

Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) plays very important role in the research field of digital Image processing. DIP deals with manipulation of digital images through a digital computer. Basically CBIR is responsible for extracting low level features of image like color, texture, shape and similarity measures for the comparison of different images and after that retrieve the similar images using query image. Content-based image retrieval is a technique which utilizes visual contents to search images from large scale image databases according to user interest. A significant progress has been made in equally theoretical research and system development. At present a great deal of research is being done in different aspect of Content-Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) of which the search engine is one of the most important elements. This paper presents a brief overview of content-based image retrieval search engines.

Keywords- Content Based Image Retrieval, CBIR, Search Engine, digital image processing.

[1]. Akbarpour, S. (2013). A Review on Content Based Image Retrieval in Medical Diagnosis. Technical and Physical Problems of Engineering, 5(15), 148–153.
[2]. Awad, D., Mancas, M., Richie, N., Courboulay, V., & Revel, A. (2015). A CBIR-BASED EVALUATION FRAMEWORK FOR VISUAL ATTENTION MODELS.
[3]. Black Jr., J. A., Fahmy, G., & Panchanathan, S. (2002). A method for evaluating the performance of CBIR systems. Arizona State University.
[4]. Christophe, J. (2012). Next Generation Search Engine: Advanced Models for Information Retrieval. Hershey, PA: IGI Global. Retrieved from http://www.igi-global.com/book/next-generation-search-engines/59723
[5]. Danish, M., Rawat, R., & Sharma, R. (2013). A Survey: Content Based Image Retrieval Based On Color, Texture, Shape & Neuro Fuzzy. Int. Journal Of Engineering Research And Application, 3(5), 839–844.

Paper Type :: Research Paper
Title :: Iris Biometric System and the Challenges – A Review
Country :: India
Authors :: S.Subha || L.Devi
Page No. :: 39-43

In this paper, a brief survey of the various research works which were carried out by various authors researchers in the field of iris biometric recognition and the challenges faced in recent decade. Biometric approaches are adapted for the proof of identification and authentication. The use of image processing techniques has become almost ubiquitous. As it is an external organ and it remains same throughout the life, allures towards other means of biometric identity systems. With an increasing demand for stringent security systems, automated identification of individuals based on biometric methods has been a major focus of research and development over the last decade. Biometric recognition analyses unique physiological traits or behavioral characteristics, such as an iris, face, retina, voice, fingerprint, hand geometry, keystrokes or gait. The iris has a complex and unique structure that remains stable over a person's lifetime, features that have led to its increasing interest in its use for biometric recognition. In this review, we discuss about the challenges involved in iris biometric system.

[1]. Michal Haindl, Mikuláš Krupiˇcka, "Unsupervised detection of non-iris occlusions", Elsevier Science Direct's Pattern Recognition Letters, Vol. 57, pp. 60-65, 2015.
[2]. Mahmut Karakaya, "A study of how gaze angle affects the performance of iris recognition", Elsevier Science Direct's Pattern
[3]. Recognition Letters, Vol. 82, pp. 132–143, 2016. Yuniol Alvarez - Betancourt, Miguel Garcia – Silvente, "A key points – based feature extraction method for iris recognition under variable image quality conditions", Elsevier Science Direct's Jr. of Knowledge- Based Systems, Vol. 92, pp. 169–182, 2016.
[4]. Farmanullah Jan, "Segmentation and localization schemes for non-ideal iris biometric systems", Elsivier's Science Direct Jr. ofSignal Processing, Vol. 133, pp. 192–212, 2017.
[5]. S Kanchana, G Balakrishnan" A novel Gaussian measure curvelet based feature segmentation and extraction for palmprint images" Indian Journal of Science and Technology Vol-8,issue 15 ,pp 1-7,July 2015.

Paper Type :: Research Paper
Title :: Effective DDOS Attack Detection Model in VANET
Country :: India
Authors :: M.S.Saranya || Dr.K.Thangadurai
Page No. :: 44-49

Information Outsourcing problems were monitored, wherever a sure server is answerable of shaping and implementing access management policies in VANETs. the most scope of the survey paper is employed to deliver the required information for the third party supported demand access. The user accesses the main points on privilege level supported access management in VANET. The twin coding is methodic within the network setting that is varied from one cluster to a different for secure information transmission process. The paper summarizes associate degree algorithmic program specifically increased cipher text-policy attribute to enforce access management policies with user revocation capability. This algorithmic program dead within the basis of setup method to form the passkey and public key, key encrypting key generation method, attribute key generation method supported access management..........

Keywords : VANET, knowledge sharing theme, certificate authorities, Attributes, Attribute primarily based cryptography, DDOS Attack Detection.

[1]. D. Boneh, X. Boyen, and E. Goh, "Hierarchical identity based encryption with constant size ciphertext," in Proc. Annu. Int. Conf.Theory Appl. Cryptographic Techn., 2005, pp. 440–456.
[2]. C. Delerablee, P. Paillier, and D. Pointcheval, "Fully collusionsecure dynamic broadcast encryption with constant-size Ci-phertexts or decryption keys," in Proc. 1st Int. Conf. Pairing-Based Cryptography, 2007, pp. 39–59.
[3]. Z. Zhu, Z. Jiang, and R. Jiang, "The attack on mona: ecuremultiowner data sharing for dynamic groups in the cloud," in Proc. Int.Conf. Inf. Sci. Cloud Comput., Dec. 7, 2013, pp. 185–189.
[4]. L. Zhou, V. Varadharajan, and M. Hitchens, "Achieving secure role-based access control on encrypted data in cloud storage," IEEE Trans. Inf. Forensics Security, vol. 8, no. 12, pp. 1947–1960, Dec. 2013.

Paper Type :: Research Paper
Title :: Enhanced Fair Routing For Wireless AD HOC Networks Using CPMP Protocol Model
Country :: India
Authors :: E.Indumathi || Dr.V. Baby deepa
Page No. :: 50-54

The wireless unplanned network presents all unplanned nodes to get associate degree equal quantity of knowledge packets during a painter. The nodes around a sink need to relay a lot of packets and have a tendency to die prior to alternative nodes as a result of the energy consumption of unplanned nodes thus, the complete network period will be prolonged by leveling the communication load around a sink. This downside is termed the energy whole downside and is one in all the foremost necessary problems for MANETs. The study proposes to deal with the energy potency downside by synchronizing the transmission times of all the nodes within the system............

Keywords- Truthful Routing, WAODN, significant Load Node, AODV, versatile Channel Allocation, CPMP, WBS.

[1]. P. O. S. Vaz de Melo, F. D. Cunha, and A. A. F. Loureiro, "A distributed protocol for cooperation among different wireless Ad hoc networks," in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Commun. (ICC), Jun. 2013, pp. 6035 –6039.
[2]. M. J. Shamani, H. Gharaee, S. Sadri, and F. Rezaei, "Adaptive energy aware cooperation strategy in heterogeneous multi - domain Ad hoc networks," ProcediaComput. Sci., vol. 19, pp. 1047 –1052, 2013.
[3]. E. I. Oyman and C. Ersoy, "Multiple sink network design problem in large scale wireless Ad hoc networ ks," in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Commun. (ICC), vol. 6, Jun. 2004, pp. 3663–3667.
[4]. G. Gupta and M. Younis, "Performance evaluation of load -balanced clustering of wireless Ad hoc networks," in Proc. 10th Int. Conf. Telecommun. (ICT), Mar. 2003, pp. 1577–1583.
[5]. J. Nagata, Y. Tanigawa, K. Kinoshita, H. Tode, and K. Murakami, "A routing method for cooperative forwarding in multiple wireless Ad hoc networks," in Proc. 8th Int. Conf. Netw. Services (ICNS), Mar. 2012, pp. 43 –46.

Paper Type :: Research Paper
Title :: Internet of Things - A Future World of Smart Things
Country :: India
Authors :: E.Sangavi
Page No. :: 55-61

Research study on the Internet of Things andSmart Things has been going on for more than a decade and reaches back to Mark Weiser's original dream of ubiquitous computing. Bruce Sterling recently popularized the idea of Smart Objects and the IoT. Smart Things is another paradigm shift in IT world. Smart Things are the things that are having embedding smartness or intelligence, identification, automation, monitoring and controlling calibre. Smart Things are assisting human life a lot, nowadays without their applications life is becoming cumbersome. This paper exhibits systematically on Internet, Things, and then explores on Internet of Things and finally Smart Things from researchers', and corporate's perspective. Moreover, this article focuses on the state of Smart Things and its applications. This in turn would help the new researchers, who want to do research in this IoT domain.

Keywords: Internet, things, Internet of Things, IoT, smartthings, Pachube, Nabaztag.

[1]. S.-I. Hou, S.-A. R. Charlery, and K. Roberson, "Systematic literature review of Internet interventions across health behaviours," HealthPsychology and Behavioral Medicine: Open Access Journal, vol. 2,no. 1, pp. 455-481, 2014.
[2]. G. Nunberg, "The advent of the Internet," 2012.
[3]. E. A. Kosmatos, N. D. Tselikas, and A. C. Boucouvalas, "Integrating RFIDs and smart objects into a unified Internet of things architecture," Advances in Internet of Things, vol. 1, pp. 5-12, 2011.
[4]. J. Antonio et al., "Drugs interaction checker based on IoT," Internet ofThings (IOT), pp. 1-8, IEEE, 2010.
[5]. E. Wasserman, "Riding herd: RFID tracks live-stock," 2009.

Paper Type :: Research Paper
Title :: Review Paper on Construction of Soil Dampness and Water System IOT Checking Framework
Country :: India
Authors :: A.Arputham
Page No. :: 62-65

This article depicts a venture created utilizing standards of Project Based Learning (PBL) and plans to utilize an installed framework for soil observing, along these lines estimating soil dampness and actualizing programmed water system, just as, the temperature and moistness of nature. In traditional agriculture, cultivation of the plants will be used to sustain and enhance human life. The cultivation in our nation is much reduced due to lack of interest, scarcity of agriculture land and water and some farmers with their own interest they have been doing the cultivation at the present. But that also yields to very less production due to lack of awareness about the land dryness, no timely pesticide usage and suitable crops for the land.........

Keyword: Temperature, Soil, Irrigation.

[1]. Rabelo S. L.;Jucá S. C. S.;Gonçalves D. L. C.;Silva V. F.;Pereira R. I. S.;Solonildo Almeida da Silva "Construction of soil moisture and irrigation IoT monitoring system using Project Based Learning" .International Journal for Innovation Education and Research www.ijier.net.
[2]. Somnath D. Bhagwat, Akash I. Hulloli, Suraj B. Patil, Abulkalam A. Khan, Mr. A.S. Kamble "Smart Green House using IOT and Cloud Computing" International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 05 Issue: 03 | Mar-2018 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072.
[3]. P.R.Harshani1, Dr. M. Newlin Rajkumar2, T.Umamaheswari3, R.Tharani4 "Monitoring the Nutrient Level for Efficient CropProductivity Using IOT"International Journal for Research in Applied Science & Engineering Technology (IJRASET)ISSN: 2321-9653; IC Value: 45.98; SJ Impact Factor:6.887Volume 5 Issue XI November 2017- Available at www.ijraset.com
[4]. Akshay Badhe, Sandeep Kharadkar, Rushikesh Ware, Pratik Kamble Computer Engineering RMDSSOE, Warje, Pune, India , Prof. Shilpa Chavan Computer Engineering RMDSSOE, Warje, Pune, India" IOT Based Smart Agriculture And Soil Nutrient Detection System" International Journal on Future Revolution in Computer Science & Communication Engineering ISSN: 2454- 4248 Volume: 4 Issue: 4
[5]. R.Sujatha. R.Anitha Nithya. Int. Journal of Engineering Research and Application www.ijera.com ISSN : 2248-9622, Vol. 7, Issue 11, ( Part -6) November 2017, pp.55-59" A Survey on Soil Monitoring and Testing In Smart Farming Using IoT And Cloud Platform".

Paper Type :: Research Paper
Title :: Tools and Techniques of Web Mining – Survey
Country :: India
Authors :: T. Pavithra || K. Thangadurai
Page No. :: 66-69

Web Mining is move towards the World Wide Web and more useful environment in which users can access the information quickly and easily which they need. There is huge amount of text documents, multimedia files and images are available in the web and it is still increasing. Data mining has involved an excellent deal of attention within the data business and in society such data into helpful information and knowledge. The information and knowledge extended to be used for applications starting from market research, fraud detection, and client retention, to production management and varied explorations. This paper is to examine the role of data mining for data extraction in web page, structure and usages mining which concerned with its techniques, tools and applications.

Keyword: Data Mining, Data Extraction, Web mining, Web content mining, Web structure mining, Web usage mining.

[1]. R. Chau, C. Yeh and K. Smith, Personalized multilingual web content mining, KES (2004).
[2]. B. Liu and K. Chang, Editorial: Special issue on web content mining, SIGKDD Explorations 6(2) (2004).
[3]. Ricardo Baeza-Yates and Alessandro Tiberi. ―Extracting semantic relations from query logs proceeding for ACM SIGKDD international conference on Knowledge discovery and data mining, 2007.
[4]. P. Kolari and A. Joshi, Web mining: Research and practice, Comput. Sci. Eng.July/August (2004).
[5]. Bodyan G.C, Shestakov T.V, ―Web Mining in Technology Management‖, Engineering Universe for Scientific Research and Management, Vol 1 Issue 2, April 2009.

Paper Type :: Research Paper
Title :: LIFI Technology
Country :: India
Authors :: R. Brahana
Page No. :: 70-74

This latest technology Li-Fi (Light Fidelity) refers to 5G Visible Light Communication systems using light-emitting diodes as a medium to high-speed communication in a similar manner as Wi-Fi. HaraldHaas says his invention, which he calls D-LIGHT, can produce data rates faster than 10 megabits per second, which is speedier than your average broadband connection. In the days where internet has become a major demand people are in a search for Wi-Fi hotspots. Li-Fi or New Life of data communication is a better alternative to WiFi in wireless communication. Li-Fi has thousand times greater speed than Wi-Fi and provides security as the visible light is unable to penetrate through the walls, which propose a new era of wireless communication. Such technology has brought not only greener but safer and cheaper future of communication.

Keyword: LI-FI, WI-FI, LED, D-Light (Data Light), Visible Light Communication.

[1]. http://tec.gov.in/pdf/Studypaper/lifi%20study%20paper%20-%20approved.pdf
[2]. http://tec.gov.in/pdf/Studypaper/lifi%20study%20paper%20-%20approved.pdf
[3]. http://www.onlinejournal.in/IJIRV2I6/006.pdf
[4]. Http://www.scribd.com/doc/88340668/seminar-report-on-lifi
[5]. Cisco visual networking index, global mobile data traffic forecast update, 2012-2017," white paper, cisco (feb. 2013)

Paper Type :: Research Paper
Title :: A Literature Study in Network Science with Social Media
Country :: India
Authors :: Adhilakshmi.K
Page No. :: 75-80

This is the beginning of Network Science. The journal has been created as a result network Science is exploding. Elated to social media and information systems as two independent, continuous and interdependent concepts. The analysis information is from the survey for two social media keywords and information systems from the Scopus web site, which is one of the main scientific search engines. With the utilization of bibliometric library of R software, scientific products in the field of social media applications in business from 2005 to the end of January 2019, the study overviews trends and achievements of this field. The results show that from the beginning of 2005 through January 2019, 2682 articles have been indexed in Web of Science in the field of social media and business.........

Keyword: Network Science, Social Media, Health Promotion and Marketing Promotion.

[1]. "What is network science?" ULRIK BRANDES Department of Computer and information Science, University of Konstal1z, Germany (e-mail: ulrik.brandes@uni-kQnstanz.de) Zuerst ersch. In: Network Science; 1 (2013), 1. - S. 1-15 http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/nws.2013.2Network Science 1(1): 1-15, 2013. © Cambridge University Press 2013 doi: 1 0.1 0 17/ nws.20 13.2
[2]. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_network_analysis
[3]. International Journal of Data and Network Science."The role of information systems in communication through social media". Seyed Mohammad Tayebia, Saeed Rajabi Manesha, Mehdi Khalilia and Soheil Sadi-Nezhada. A Department of Statistics and Actuarial Science, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada
[4]. International Journal of Data and Network Science "The impact of social media in business growth and performance: A scientometrics analysis" A. Pourkhania, Kh. Abdipoura, B. Bahera and M. Moslehpoura. Department of Business Administration, Asia University Taiwan, Taichung, Taiwan. Department of Business Administration, Saigon Institute of Technology, District 12, HCMC 70000, Vietnam

Paper Type :: Research Paper
Title :: A Study on Basic Cryptography Techniques
Country :: India
Authors :: Amutha . S
Page No. :: 81-83

Visual cryptography is associated with the process of converting ordinary plain text into incomprehensive text and vice-versa. It is a method of storing and transmitting data in a particular form so that only those for whom it is intended can read and process it. Cryptography not only protects data from theft or alteration, but can also be used for user authentication. Earlier cryptography was effectively synonymous with encryption but nowadays cryptography is mainly based on mathematical theory and computer science practice. Visual Cryptography takes a binary image (the secret) and divides it into two or more pieces known as shares. When the shares are printed on transparencies and then superimposed, the secret can be recovered. Visual Cryptography is a unique technique in the sense that the encrypted message can be decrypted directly by the human visual system..........

Keyword: Visual Cryptography, Security, Encryption, Keys

[1]. Alfred J. Menezes, Paul C. van Oorschot, Scott A. Vanstone, Handbook of Applied Cryptography. CRC Press, Boca Raton 1997, ISBN 0-8493-8523-7.
[2]. Klaus Pommerening, Datenschutz und Datensicherheit. BI-Wissenschaftsverlag, Mannheim 1991. [out of print, here is the PDF file.]
[3]. Michael Pröse, Chiffriermaschinen und Entzifferungsgeräte in Zweiten Weltkrieg. m press, München 2006. ISBN 3-89975-548-0. [Previous version online.]
[4]. Rainer A. Rueppel, Analysis and Design of Stream Ciphers. Springer-Verlag, Berlin 1986. [out of print]
[5]. A. Salomå, Public-Key Cryptography. Springer-Verlag, Berlin 1990.