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Volume 3 ~ Issue 6 ~ Version 2 (June 2013)

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Exploiting the Adaptive Modulation Scheme to Increase the Throughput Performance of 3GPPLTE Downlink Interface Air

Country

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Nigeria

Authors

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Akinniranye A || Oyetunji S.A.

Page No.

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01-07

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10.9790/3021-03620107
aned   0.4/3021-03620107 aned
iosrjen   3021-0306-0207 iosrjen

The driver for the choice of alternating use of modulation scheme is to increase the data rates where there is enough signal power to transmit it and improve the overall throughput performance. The adaptive modulation is a bit loading scheme exploited to increase the throughput performance of a communication link. This scheme will take into account the varying SNR values across the N subcarriers and instantaneous channel quality, and adapt a modulation scheme to the subcarrier based on the target performance level. Thus, more bits can be transmitted over a subcarrier while achieving the desired performance level. The modulation mode is picked from modulation schemes standardised for 3GPP LTE downlink-QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM, and consideration is also given to BPSK and 8PSK schemes. A target performance threshold is adopted for each modulation mode in a subcarrier viewing it as AWGN subchannel. The average throughput obtained from the simulation with the constraint of the PC is 86.895 Mbps.

 

Keywords:- BER, Bandpass Modulation, Communication Channels, Mapping

[1] T. S. Rappaport, Wireless Communications: Principle and Practice, 2nd ed.: Prentice Hall 2002.

[2] D. So, "Mobile and Wireless Communication," in Communications Engineering Lecture Notes: University of Manchester, 2010.

[3] A. Goldsmith, Wireless Communications: Cambridge University Press, 2005.

[4] J. Berkmann, C. Carbonelli, F. Dietrich, C. Drewes, and W. Xu, "On 3G LTE Terminal Implementation-Standard, Algorithm, Complexities and Challenges," in IEEE WCMC, 2008, pp. 970-975.

[5] E. Dahlman, S. Parkvall, J. Skold, and P. Beming, 3G Evolution:HSPA and LTE For Mobile Broadband, First ed.: Elsevier Academic Press, 2007.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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The impact of direct-indirect taxation on consumer

Country

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Iraq ‎

Authors

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Ezat Sabir Esmaeel

Page No.

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08-13

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10.9790/3021-03620813
aned   0.4/3021-03620813 aned
iosrjen   3021-0306-0213 iosrjen
One of the most important resources of revenue for every Government is tax which is fulfilling its commitments towards society. Taxes are classified as direct taxes and indirect taxes. Direct and indirect taxation have different impacts on the consumer, they have advantages and disadvantages in the same time. Direct taxation is equitable, certain and adverse effects can be avoided, in the same time it is unpopular, inconvenience and it is possible to evade by the tax payers. However, indirect taxation is the solution for the problem of externality and it gives the government more control over its use of fiscal policy because indirect taxes can be changed between budgets without parliamentary approval. In contrast, direct taxes can only be changed in the annual budget.
[1] Alka Gupta, Public Finance and Tax Planning, 2002.
[2] Caren Grown What Gender Equality Advocates Should Know about Taxation, 2006.
[3] Emmanuel Saez, Direct or Indirect Instruments for Redistribution, 2002.
[4] Helmuth Cremer, Direct versus Indirect Taxation: The Design of the Tax Structure Revisited, 2001.
[5] Simon James, Taxation Research as Economic Research, 2007.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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A Low Cost Fly back Continuous Conduction Mode Inverter With Lcl Filter For Ac Module Application

Country

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India

Authors

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Steffi Sharoffa.M || Cordelia Sumathy.A

Page No.

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14-18

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10.9790/3021-03621418
aned   0.4/3021-03621418 aned
iosrjen   3021-0306-0218 iosrjen
This paper presents a method to improve the efficiency by operating the flyback inverter in continuous conduction mode with sliding mode controller for Ac module application. The unfolding type flyback inverter operating in discontinuous conduction mode is the conventional method used for low cost solution for photovoltaic AC application. In this proposed method we have aimed to get an improved efficiency compared with conventional method by using continuous conduction mode flyback inverter with sliding mode controller and the output power quality at rated power level is improved by connecting LCL filter between the inverter and load. Photovoltaic (PV), or solar cells as they are often used for Ac module application, they are used here to convert sunlight into direct-current (DC) electricity.MPPT or Maximum Power Point Tracking algorithm is included in sliding mode controllers used for extracting maximum available power from PV module under certain conditions. Normally, the DC output voltage produced by PV panel is very low which is converted into high AC voltage by using flyback inverter. The main advantage of the flyback inverter is , it does not require any additional circuit to convert the low output voltage of PV panel into high voltage because it has capability to step up the voltage.
[1] S. B. Kjaer,J.K.Pedesren, and F.Balabjerg, "A review of single-phase grid-connected inverters for photovoltaic modules," IEEE Trans. Ind Appl., vol.41, no.5,pp. 1292-1306,Sep./Oct 2005. [2] R.H. Wills, F.E. Hall, S. J. Strong and J. H. Wohlgemuth, "The AC photovoltaic module," in Proc. 25th IEEE pPhotovolt. Spec. Conf., 1996, pp.. 1231–1234. [3] T.Kerekes, R.Teodorescu, and U.Bourp, "Transformerless photovoltaic inverters connected to the grid," in Proc. 22 nd Annu.IEEE Appl. Power Electron. Conf. (APEC), 2007, pp. 1733-1737. [4] B .Burger and D.Kranzer, "Extreme high efficiency PV-power converters, in Proc.13 th Eur.Conf. Power Electron. Appl. (EPE), 2009, pp. 1-13. [5] U.Boeke and H.van der Broeck, "Transformer-less converter concept for a grid-connection of thin-film photovoltaic modules," in Proc. IEEE Ind. Appl.Soc. Annu.Meet. (IAS), pp. 1-8.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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classification model base on Differential Evolution algorithm

Country

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China

Authors

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Zhehuang Huang

Page No.

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19-21

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10.9790/3021-03621921
aned   0.4/3021-03621921 aned
iosrjen   3021-0306-0221 iosrjen

Differential evolution algorithm is a heuristic global optimization technique based on population which is easy to understand and implement. In this paper we proposed a classification model base on differential evolution algorithm. The proposed model provides a good practicability and promising future for pattern identification.

 

Keywords: classification model, differential evolution, Intelligent Optimization.

[1] Storn R,Price K, Differential evolution-a simple and efficient heuristic for global optimization over continuous spaces, Journal of Global Optimization, 11,1997,341-359.
[2] Storn R, Price K,Differential evolution for multi-objective optimization,Evolutionary Computation, 4,2003,8-12.
[3] Omran M G G, Engelbrecht A P. Self-Adaptive Differential Evolution Methods for Unsupervised Image Classification,Proc of the IEEE Conference on Cybernetics and Intelligent Systems.Bangkok,Thailand,2006,1-6.
[4] Yang Shiwen,Gan Y B, Qing Anyong. Sideband Suppression in Time-Modulated Linear Array by the Differential Evolution Algorithm. IEEEE Trans on Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 1(1),2002, 173-175.
[5] Wu Lianghong,Wang Yaonan,Yuan Xiaofang,et al. Differential Evolution Algorithm with Adaptive Second Mutation,Chinese journal of control and decision , 21(8),2006,898-902.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Experimental Investigation to Study Effect of Polyester Fibre on Durability of HVFA Concrete through RCPT Method

Country

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India

Authors

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Indrajit Patel ||, C D Modhera

Page No.

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22-27

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10.9790/3021-03622227
aned   0.4/3021-03622227 aned
iosrjen   3021-0306-0227 iosrjen

Global warming has emerged today as a life-threatening issue for the world. Since concrete is one of the most consumed material after water on the earth for infrastructure & construction industries, a commendable contribution can be made by optimizing the use of cement and natural resources in concrete manufacturing. High volume Fly Ash (HVFA) concrete is one of the major developments since last two decade leading to utilization of Fly Ash in a bulk quantity and thereby reducing cement consumption and ultimately reducing emulsion of CO2 in order of one ton per a ton of cement. Durability of concrete structure is another important parameter effecting the sustainability of concrete technology in addition to minimizing use of virgin material. Experimental investigation has been carried out by authors to study effect of 12mm triangular polyester fibre on engineering and durability properties of HVFA concrete. Engineering parameters include compressive and flexural strength, impact and abrasion resistance. Durability aspect is studied through Rapid Chloride Penetration Test (RCPT) as per ASTM C 1202 and comparative study for RCPT test is discussed for plain and fibre reinforced HVFA concrete in this article. The article describes durability parameters of HVFA concrete, methodology of RCPT, standards and test report of special additives to HVFA.

 

Keywords: - Durability, Fly ash, Fibre, RCPT

[1] A. Bilodeau, V. Sivasundaram, K.E. Painter, V.M. Malhotra, Durability of concrete incorporating high volumes of fly ash from sources in the USA, ACI Mater. J. 91 (1) (1994) 3– 12.
[2] A. Bisaillon, R. Michel, V.M. Malhotra,"Performance of high-volume fly ash concrete in large experimental monoliths", ACI Mater. J. 91 (2) (1994) 178–187.
[3] Chandramouli K et.al ,"Rapid Chloride Permeability Test For Durability Studies On Glass Fibre Reinforced Concrete", ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Vol. 5, No. 3, March 2010,pp 67-71

[4] Gambhir, M. L Concrete Technology,( Tata Mc-Graw Hills,2004). [5] Shetty, M.S. Concrete Technology,(S.Chand & Company Ltd., edition 2010 pp.1-503).

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Vigor Resourceful Practice for Two-Way Networks

Country

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India

Authors

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N. Sunil Kumar ||, B.Naveen Kumar ||, S.Bala Naresh ||, P.Narahari

Page No.

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28-31

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10.9790/3021-03622831
aned   0.4/3021-03622831 aned
iosrjen   3021-0306-0231 iosrjen
we study the problem of transmission-side diversityand routing in a static wireless network. In this paper, we present a new medium access control (MAC) protocol forad-hoc networks with multiple input multiple output (MIMO) links. Instead of using perfect synchronizationtechnique, we assume the cooperative transmission is asynchronous. It is shown that the energy savings of 39% and 56% areachievable in line and grid networks with a large number of nodes, respectively.This paper describes theassumptions, the implementation process and the challenges wewere presented with.The MAC protocol proposed in addresses thisissue using an efficient cooperative scheme. Ageneral decision feedback equalizer (DFE) is used in the receiving cluster members to equalize the received MISO signal and detect as soft symbols. The receiving cluster members send the soft decision outputs to the destination node.Up to 80% in energysavings can be achieved for a grid topology, while for random nodeplacement our cooperative protocol can save up to 40% in energyconsumption relative to the other protocols.

[1] A. Khandani, J. Abounadi, E. Modiano, and L. Zheng, ―Cooperative routing in static wireless networks,‖ IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 55, no. 11, pp. 2185–2192, Nov. 2007.

[2] C. Chou, J. Yang, and D. Wang, ―Cooperative MAC protocol with automaticrelay selection in distributed wireless networks,‖ in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Pervasive Comput. Commun. Workshops, White Plains, NY, Mar. 2007, pp. 526–531.

[3] T. Korakis, S. Narayanan, A. Bagri, and S. Panwar, ―Implementing a cooperative MAC protocol for wireless LANs,‖ in Proc. IEEE ICC, Istanbul, Turkey, Jun. 2006, vol. 10, pp. 4805–4810.

[4] H. Shen and S. Kalyanaraman, ―Asynchronous cooperative MIMO communication,‖ in Proc. IEEE WiOpt, Limassol, Cyprus, Apr. 2007, pp. 1–9.

[5] K. Sundaresan, R. Sivakumar, M. Ingram, and T. Chang, ―A fair medium access control protocol for ad-hoc networks with MIMO links,‖ in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Hong Kong, Mar. 2004, vol. 4, pp. 2559–2570.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Detailed analysis of Speaker Recognition System and use of MFCCs for recognition

Country

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India

Authors

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Prerna Puri

Page No.

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32-36

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10.9790/3021-03623236
aned   0.4/3021-03623236 aned
iosrjen   3021-0306-0236 iosrjen
This paper presents the reader with the complete analysis of speaker recognition system with the explanation of each step with their necessity of existence. Every speaker recognition system comprises broadly of two phases namely the enrollment phase and the verification phase. The system in its first phase uses the record function for collecting the voices of different speakers and save them.Later these voices can be used to form a codebook and compare the voice with that in the enrollment phase. Enrollment phase either use feature extraction coefficients(like MFCCs,LPCCs,LPCs etc.)or speaker models like GMM,LDA(Linear Discriminant Analysis) or Factor Analysis(FA)techniques for extracting the features to serve as an identity of the speaker.The verification phase is simply the phase in which the voices in the enrollment and this phase are tested for the likelihood between them and then identify the speaker on the basis of the likelihood ratio.
[1] Maider Zamalloa, Germacn Bordel, Luis Javier Rodriguez, Mikel Penagarikano ,Feature Selection Based on Genetic Algorithms for Speaker Recognition(2006)
[2] Ehab F. M. F. Badran, Hany Selim,Proceedings of ICSP2000,Speaker Recognition Using Artificial Neural Networks Based on Vowel phonemes
[3] Xing Fan and John H. L. Hansen, Fellow, IEEE,Speaker Identification Within Whispered Speech Audio Streams, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AUDIO, SPEECH, AND LANGUAGE PROCESSING, VOL. 19, NO. 5, JULY 2011
[4] Mary A. Kohler', Walter D. Andrews, Joseph P. Campbell2, and Jaime Hernhdez-Cordero,
[5] Phonetic speaker Recognition(2001 IEEE)

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

::

A Study on Qualification of Ngo Workers and Their Role in Child Labour Prevention

Country

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India

Authors

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Srivastava Anshima ||, Mishra Sunita

Page No.

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37-39

::
10.9790/3021-03623739
aned   0.4/3021-03623739 aned
iosrjen   3021-0306-0239 iosrjen

Child labour is any work done by the children in order to economically benefit their families or themselves directly, at the cost of their physical, mental or social development. The most common NGOs use a framework that includes orientation and level of operation. An NGO's orientation refers to the type of activities it takes on. These activities might include human rights, environmental, or development work.The study aimed to assess the role of NGO worker stopping of child labour. A study was conducted in Lucknow city. A total of 120 sample were selected (60 NGO worker and 60 child Labour) in different criteria using the random sampling technique. A different prevention of strategy used in self-made questionnaire to assess the role of NGO worker stopping of child labour. The study findings revealed that educational level of the NGO workers fluctuate from the most preferred criteria of child Labour prevention strategies present. The study found that education, health, self-image and self- esteem strategies vary with qualification of NGO workers in the prevention of child Labour.

 

Keywords: Child Labour, NGO worker, Education, Strategy.

[1] Ahuja D., "Child Labour and the Law", Deep & Deep Publications (P) Ltd.; 1998 pp.215.1998 pp.71.
[2] Badiawala, "Child Labour and India: Encyclopedia of Child and Family Welfare Series", Anmol Publications (P) Ltd.; 1998 pp.71.
[3] Irawani R.M. (2011), "Role of Social Workers in Supporting Girl Child Labour and their Families", International Journal of Business and Social Science, Vol.2, No.18, pp.119-125.
[4] Khan R. (2000), "Socioeconomic Aspects of Child Labour- A Case Study of Children in Autowork Shops", The Labour Journal of Economics, Vol.6, No.1, pp.93-112.
[5] Karunakaran M., Mehta P.L. & Jaiswal S., "Child Labour and the Law", Deep & Deep Publications (P) Ltd.; 1994 pp.211.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Bandwidth Efficient GNDA

Country

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Kerala

Authors

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Uma Narayanan ||, Arun Soman

Page No.

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40-43

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10.9790/3021-03624043
aned   0.4/3021-03624043 aned
iosrjen   3021-0306-0243 iosrjen

With the tremendous advent of internet and related technologies the significance of adhoc networks are increasing day by day. Adhoc networks are infrastructure less, self-creating wireless networks. Since nodes are mobile and topology changes dynamically route selection becomes very difficult. This type of network is easily vulnerable to internal and external attacks due to the presence of bad neighbor nodes. Identification of nodes as good or bad is based on its flow capacity, signal strength and relative positioning of nodes in the network. Also due to the high mobility of nodes energy consumption is also more. Power is one of the most important design criteria for adhoc networks as batteries provide limited working capability to the mobile nodes. Power failure of a mobile node not only affects the node itself but also its ability to forward packets on behalf of others and hence affects the overall network lifetime. In this paper we are introducing two concepts for efficient selection of good neighbor nodes and effective bandwidth selection for routing.

 

Keywords: AODV, MANET, Bandwidth Efficient GNDA, Traffic

[1] Umang Singh, B. V. R. Reddy,M. N. Hoda,"GNDA: Detecting good neighbor nodes in adhoc routing protocol", Second International Conference on Emerging Applications of Information Technology,2011.

[2] H. Yang, X. Meng, and S. Lu, Self-Organized Network-Layer Security in Mobile Ad hoc Networks. International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking, Atlanta, GA, USA, 2002, 11-20.

[3] Y.-C. Hu, A. Perrig, and D. B. Johnson, Efficient Security Mechanisms for Routing Protocols. Network and Distributed System Security Symposium, NDSS '03, SanDiego, USA, 2003, 57-73.

[4] Chang J-H, Tassiulas L, "Energy Conserving Routing in Wireless Ad-hoc Networks," Proc. IEEE International Conf. On Computer Communications (IEEE Infocom) 2000;

[5] C.Siva Ram Murthy and B.S.Manoj, "Ad hoc Wireless Networks", Pearson 2005.ISBN 81-297-0945- 7.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

::

Scheduling of Real Time Tasks

Country

::

India

Authors

::

Pankaj Udvanshi ||, Ajay Kakkar

Page No.

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44-58

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10.9790/3021-03624458
aned   0.4/3021-03624458 aned
iosrjen   3021-0306-0258 iosrjen

Scheduling refers to a set of policies and mechanisms supported by operating system that controls the order in which the work to be done is completed. Scheduling is the best method to improve the performance of the network by re-arranging the system parameters. The basic of need of scheduling is to keep the CPU busy as much as possible by executing a (user) process until it must wait for an event, and then switch to another process. This paper involves the various issues on which the performance of the network depends.

 

Key Words: Scheduling, Network performance, efficiency, throughput.

[1] Yang-ping Chen, Lai-xiong Wang, and Shi-tan Huang Xi'an ―A Novel Task Scheduling Algorithm for Real-Time Multiprocessor Systems‖ 2007 IEEE International Conference on Control and Automation Guangzhou, China.

[2] Lars Lundberg and Hakan Lennerstad Department of Systems and Software, School of Engineering, Blekinge Institute of Technology, 372 25 Ronneby, Sweden'' Slack-Based Global Multiprocessor Scheduling of Aperiodic Tasks in Parallel Embedded Real-Time Systems‖.

[3] Jian-Jia Chen Chuan-Yue Yang, Hsueh-I Lu, Tei-Wei Kuo ‗‗Approximation Algorithms for Multiprocessor Energy-Efficient Scheduling of Periodic Real-Time Tasks with Uncertain Task Execution Time‖ IEEE Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium in 2008.

[4] Paulo Baltarejo Sousa , Bjorn Andersson and Eduardo Tovar ‗‗Implementing Slot-Based Task-Splitting Multiprocessor Scheduling‖ IEEE 2011.

[5] operating system internals and design principal, fifth edition by William stallings