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Volume 3 ~ Issue 6 ~ Version 3 (June 2013)

 

Paper Type

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Review Paper

Title

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Design & development of bidirectional solar tracking system implemented in western region of Maharashtra

Country

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India

Authors

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Jyoti Patole ||, Aditi Apte || Shweta Suryawanshi

Page No.

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01-05

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10.9790/3021-03630105
aned   0.4/3021-03630105 aned
iosrjen   3021-0306-0305 iosrjen

Solar energy systems have emerged as a viable source of renewable energy over the past two or three decades, and are now widely used for a variety of industrial and domestic applications. Such systems are based on a solar collector, designed to collect the sun's energy and to convert it into either electrical power or thermal energy. This paper presents the design & development of bi-directional solar tracking system. Solar tracking allows more energy to be produced because the solar array is able to remain aligned to the sun. The constructed device was implemented by integrating it with 900V inverter and 12volts, 100AH battery. Due to the atmosphere the sun energy is not as great in the morning and evening compared to noontime, which initiated the development of solar tracker.

 

Keywords:- panel , ARM processor,sensors

[1] Okpeki U.K. otuagoma.S.O "Design and Construction of a Bi–Directional Solar Tracking System" Research Inventy: International Journal Of Engineering And Science Issn: 2278-4721, Vol. 2, Issue 5 (February 2013), Pp 32-38
[2] K. Sreenivasa Rao1, M. Mahesh,"ARM Based Solar Tracking System" International Journal of Modern Engineering Research (IJMER) ,Vol.2, Issue.4, July-Aug. 2012 pp-2504-2507 ISSN: 2249-6645
[3] Tiberiu Tudorache, Liviu Kreindler "Design of a Solar Tracker System for PV Power Plants" Vol. 7, No. 1, 2010
[4] J. A. Beltran, J. L. S. Gonzalez Rubio, C.D. Garcia-Beltran: Design,Manufacturing and Performance Test of a Solar Tracker Made by an Embedded Control, CERMA 2007, Mexico
[5] O. Stalter, B. Burger, S. Bacha, D. Roye: Integrated Solar Tracker Positioning Unit in Distributed Grid-Feeding Inverters for CPV Power Plants, ICIT 2009, Australia

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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A Comprehensive Comparative Evaluation of Pixel by Pixel and Discrete Wavelet Transformation Image Fusion Algorithms

Country

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India‎

Authors

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Gurpreet Singh ||, Gagandeep Jindal

Page No.

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06-11

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10.9790/3021-03630611
aned   0.4/3021-03630611 aned
iosrjen   3021-0306-0311 iosrjen

Image Fusion is a process of combining the relevant information from a set of images, into a single image, wherein the resultant fused image will be more informative and complete than any of the input images. There are several image fusion algorithms that are being used by the researchers throughout the globe. Each of the image fusion algorithms has their own advantages and disadvantages which are the main area of concern in this paper. The commonly used image fusion algorithms used are pixel by pixel method, discrete wavelet transformation, Haar transformation, PCA base image fusion method, HIS transform base image fusion, etc. In this paper we will discuss the pixel by pixel method and discrete wavelet transformation image fusion methods. A thorough evaluation of all the above mentioned algorithms is conducted with the help of algorithms and mathematical formulas. These algorithms are compared using three quality metrics namely entropy, standard deviation and quality index. The experimental evaluation is conducted using Matlab 7.The reading produced by image quality metrics, based on image quality of the fused images, were used to access the algorithms.

 

Keywords: – Image Fusion, DWT, Pixel by Pixel method.

[1] Shivsubramani Krishnamoorthy. and K P Soman (2010), "Implementation and Comparative Study of Image Fusion Algorithms", International Journal of Computer Science & Communication, Volume 9– No.2, November 2010.
[2] S.Mary Praveena and Dr.ILA.Vennila (2009) "Image Fusion By Global Energy Merging", International Journal of Recent Trends in Engineering, Vol 2, No. 7, November 2009

[3] V.P.S. Naidu and J.R. Raol (2008) "Pixel-level Image Fusion using Wavelets and Principal Component Analysis", Defence Science Journal, Vol. 58, No. 3, May 2008, pp. 338-352 Ó 2008, DESIDOC
[4] Chetan K. Solanki and Narendra M. Patel "Pixel based and Wavelet based Image fusion Methods with their Comparative Study", National Conference on Recent Trends in Engineering & Technology
[5] M. Jaya Manmadha Rao and Dr.K.V.V.S.Reddy(2011) "Image Fusion Algorithm for Impulse Noise Reduction in Digital Images", Global Journal of Computer Science and Technology Volume 11 Issue 12 Version 1.0 July 2011

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Tensile Properties and Gamma Precipitates in Grain Boundaries of Nickel Alloys

Country

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India

Authors

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Aezeden Mohamed

Page No.

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12-16

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10.9790/3021-03631216
aned   0.4/3021-03631216 aned
iosrjen   3021-0306-0316 iosrjen

The effects of alloying additions, Cr and Mo, on the tensile properties, plastic deformation behaviours, and fracture mechanisms of nickel alloys, including IN600, IN601, C22, were investigated through uniaxial tensile testing. Test specimens were annealed and air-cooled. From the resulting stress strain curve (SSC), it was found that alloy C22 exhibited higher strength and ductility than IN600 and IN601. Dimpled ductile intergranular fractures were obtained and it was determined that the Mo and Cr additions prevented premature brittle intergranular failure. It was also found that the microstructural characterizations of C22 showed higher amounts of slip bands within grains than IN600 and IN601. Higher plasticity and strength of the C22 alloy is indicated.

 

Keywords: - C22; IN601; IN600; dimple; intergranular fracture; slip bands; tensile test.

[1] H. Akio. S. Kentaro, KF Koboyashi, Microstructure and mechanical properties of laser beam welded Inconel 718, International Journal of Material Production Technology 13 (1-2), 1998, 28-44.
[2] J. G. Gonzalez, Effect of structural evolution in IN601 on intergranular corrosion, Material Chemistry. Physics 56 (1), 1998, 70-73.
[3] X. Lin and X. Chen, Laser ablation rates of Inconel and aluminum with femo and nanosecond pulses, in Proceedings of CLEO. San Francisco 1998.
[4] V. Vankahtesh, and H. J. Rack, Elevated temperature hardening of IN690, Journal of Mech. Material, 30 (1), 1998, 69-81.
[5] M. C. Pandey, and D. V. V. Satyanarayana, Effect of gamma prime depletion on creep behavior of a nickel base superalloy, Journal of Material Science, Vol. 19 (6), 1996, 1009-1015.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Performance Analysis of DWT operated DVR using Sinusoidal and Selective Harmonic PWM Techniques

Country

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India

Authors

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R.Saranya ||, M.Maheswari ||, V.Priya

Page No.

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17-25

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10.9790/3021-03631725
aned   0.4/3021-03631725 aned
iosrjen   3021-0306-0325 iosrjen

The Quality of the output power from the utilities has become a major concern of the modern industries. The power quality associated problems are voltage sag, surge, flicker, voltage imbalance, interruptions and harmonic problems. The power quality problems may cause problems to the industries ranging from malfunctioning of equipment to complete plant shut down. It has been identified that power quality can be degraded both due to utility side abnormalities as well as the customer side abnormalities. Voltage sag and swells in the medium and low voltage distribution grid are considered to be the most frequent type of power quality problems based on recent power quality studies. Their impact on sensitive loads is severe. Different solutions have been developed to protect sensitive loads against such disturbances but Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) is considered to be the most efficient and effective solution. In order to mitigate these disturbances, they must be detected properly. The detection can be done by conventional techniques like Fourier Transform (FT), Phase Locked Loop (PLL) and Peak detection method. But Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) is efficient as it easily and rapidly provides information about the voltage sag depth and phase shift. It also localizes both frequency and time at the same time. This project presents an implementation of the DWT using Butterworth passive LC filters for operating a Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) system. Butterworth LC filter is used to provide monotonic and ripple free magnitude response. Thus the Power quality of the proposed system is expected to improve. Two pulse width modulation –based control techniques, viz. sinusoidal PWM and selective harmonic elimination PWM ,are presented for controlling the switching pulses to the inverter used in the DVR system .The Simulation study of selective harmonic elimination PWM technique for DVR is compared with sinusoidal PWM. Simulations are carried out using MATLAB/SIMULINK.

 

Keywords: Dynamic Voltage Restorer, Phase Locked Loop, Selective Harmonic Elimination Pulse Width Modulation, Discrete Wavelet Transform.

[1] Mahesh Singh and VaibhavTiwari, "Modelling analysis and solution of power quality problems," International Journal of Computer and Electrical Engineering.

[2] Rosli Omar, Nasrudin Abd Rahim and Marizan Sulaiman, "Modelling and simulation for voltage sags/swells mitigation using Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR)," Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology, pp.464-470, 2009.

[3] Sunil Kumar Gupta, H. P. Tiwari and Rames Pachar, "Study of Major Issues and their Impact on DVR system performance," International Journal of Computer and Electrical Engineering. Vol. 2, No.1, February 2010.

[4] S.V. Ravi Kumar and S.SivaNagaraju, "Simulation of D-STATCOM and DVR in Power Systems," ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Vol. 2, No.3, June 2007.

[5] C.K. Chui, " Wavelets: A Mathemetical Tool for Signal Processing ," ser. Soc. Ind. Appl. Math. Philadelphia, PA: SIAM, 1997.

 

Paper Type

::

Research Paper

Title

::

Reconstruction of the abridged cloud data with long and narrow surface by Imageware software

Country

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China

Authors

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Fu Zhang ||, Yakun Zhang ||, Zhaomei Qiu ||, Jun Wang || , Pengjun Mao

Page No.

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26-30

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10.9790/3021-03632630
aned   0.4/3021-03632630 aned
iosrjen   3021-0306-0330 iosrjen

The reason of cloud data with long and narrow surface lack was explored, and the reconstruction method was researched. In order to get the best reconstructed surface, the surface trend and the surface cloud data errors in different surface orders were compared during the process of surface reconstruction. The results showed that the reconstruction of cloud data with long and narrow surface lack was realized. The free surface was generated through sectional breakpoint cloud data which was cut by the cloud data nearby the lack cloud data. The surface of the original cloud data was obtained through the adjustment of control points of free surface. The reconstruction of cloud data with long and narrow surface lack was finished through the generation of surface to cloud data. The research will provide new methods for the defect of the cloud data to realize surface reconstruction, and the research on reconstruction of the abridged cloud data with narrow and long surface by Imageware software will provide theoretical foundation for development and application of reverse engineering.

 

Keywords: long and narrow surface, cloud data, reconstruction, sectional breakpoint cloud data, control points

[1] Zhang Jing-tao and Lu Zhang-ping. "Surface reconstruction of the abridged cloud data in imageware". Journal of Agricultural Mechanization Research, 27(5), 2005, 90-92.
[2] Xu Shou-quan and Zhu Yan–juan. "the surface reconstruction for few and scattered points cloud". Manufacturing Information Engineering of China, 40(3), 2011, 35-44.
[3] Jin Tao and Tong Shui-guang. Reverse engineering. China Machine Press. 2003.
[4] Yu Jing-hua, Hu Zhi-yong and Hou Guo-hua. "point cloud segmentation based on imageware. Jiangsu Machine Building & Automation", 38(1), 2009, 113-115.
[5] Shan Yan and Xie Bin-fei. Imageware reverse modeling application examples. Tsinghua University Press. 2006.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

::

Design And Strength Analysis Of Composite Bamboo Column Elements

Country

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India

Authors

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Diwakar Bhagat ||, Mukul Gupta ||, Dr. Suresh Bhalla

Page No.

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31-36

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10.9790/3021-03633136
aned   0.4/3021-03633136 aned
iosrjen   3021-0306-0336 iosrjen

This paper presents the development of bamboo composites (high capacity sections of bamboo for column) for modern bamboo structures. Bamboo being a natural outcrop from mother earth is a grass which grows very tall and has excellent structural properties. It is in use since time immemorial in building small houses and structures in a non engineered manner. In this paper, the development of bamboo composite column of high capacity with test results has been put forth. Compressive tests on composite column segment of bamboo of 150x 150x 405 mm were conducted on compression testing machine (CTM) and a maximum failure load of 670kN has been observed, Load vs. Displacement curve, Stress vs. Strain curve and Peak loads has been recorded. The results of the test confirms that the capacity of these bamboo composites to be comparable on strength with similar reinforced concrete (RC) and steel sections. With these encouraging test results, modern engineered bamboo structures can be a real possibility, wherein replacing RC and steel structures/sections wherever required and thought of in an acceptable manner. The possible replacement of RC and steel by increased usage of bamboo as building material can be possibly bring in a reduction in release of green house gases in atmosphere and would bring about curbing environmental pollution.

 

Keywords: Bamboo Composite, , C.T.M., Modern Engineered Bamboo.

[1] The Christian Science Monitor (2008), 'Industry scrambles to find a greener concrete' in The CS Monitor. Available at http://www.csmonitor.com/2008/0312/p14s01-stgn.html . (Accessed: 26 May, 2013).
[2] Scientific American, http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?id=cement-from-carbondioxide, 2008. (Accessed on 28th May, 2013). [3] GHAVAMI, K., Bamboo: Low cost energy saving construction materials, Proc. International conference on Modern Bamboo Structures, 28-30 October, Changsha, China, 5-21, (2007).

[4] BHALLA, S., SUDHAKAR, P., GUPTA, S. AND R., Proc. International Congress of Environmental Research, Goa, 18-20 December, Goa, India, 2, (2008).

 

Paper Type

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Review Paper

Title

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Closed Loop Control of Non-Isolated Bidirectional Dc/Dc Converter

Country

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India

Authors

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Soumya Manoharan ||, A.Swarnalatha

Page No.

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37-43

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10.9790/3021-03633743
aned   0.4/3021-03633743 aned
iosrjen   3021-0306-0343 iosrjen
In this project a bidirectional dc-dc converter using ZVS technique employs a coupled inductor is implemented. In step-up mode, the coupled inductors are parallely charged and serially discharged to get a high output voltage gain. In step-down mode, the coupled inductors are serially charged and parallely discharged to get a low output voltage gain. Current system using ordinary switching techniques, so that the switching loss is very high. Therefore more heat will dissipated. In ZVS technique, heat loss is minimum. So we can increase the life span of switches. Moreover, we can increase the output voltage. The proposed converter aims to reduce the switching current. It has higher step-up and step-down voltage gains than the conventional bidirectional dc-dc converter. For the same electric conditions, the proposed converter's and the conventional bidirectional converter's efficiency, voltage gain, output voltage and switching current will differ.Here closed loop control is used.By using a PID controller,we can obtain a high output voltage and high gain by controlling the duty cycle of switches.

[1] Kwan-Hwa Lui, Fred C .Y Lee, "Zero-Voltage Switching Technique in DC/DC Converters," IEEE tran. on power electronics,vol.5,no.3.july 1990.

[2] J inrong. Qian , Issa. Batarseh , M.Ehsani , "Analysis and Design of a Clamp-mode Isolated Zero-Voltage Switching Boost Converter," IEEE 1995.

[3] Praveen K.Jain, Wen Kang, Harry Soin and Youhao Xi, " Analysis and Design Considerations of a Load and Line Independent Zero Voltage Switching Full Bridge DC/DC Converter Topology," IEEE transactions on power electronics,vol.17.no.5 , Sep 2002.

[4] Luciano Schuch,Cassiano Rech, Helio Leaes Hey, Hilton Abilio Grundling, Humberto Pinheiro and Jose Renes Pinheiro, "Analysis and Design of a New High Efficiency Bidirectional Integrated ZVT PWM Converter for DC-Bus and Battery Bank Interface," IEEE Transactions on industry applications, vol.42,September/October 2006.

[5] Zhiling Liao and Xinbo Ruan, " A Novel Power Management Control Strategy for Stand-Alone Photovoltaic Power System," IEEE 2009.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Error Analysis for Networks Supplying Unbalanced Nonlinear Load

Country

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India

Authors

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S. K.Bhuyan ||, A.K.Baliarsingh ||, D.P.Dash ||, A.K Sahu ||, A.K Mangaraj

Page No.

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44-53

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10.9790/3021-03634453
aned   0.4/3021-03634453 aned
iosrjen   3021-0306-0353 iosrjen
Power quality is the set of parameters defining the properties of power supply delivered to the users in normal operating conditions in terms of continuity of supply and characteristics of voltage (magnitude, frequency, symmetry, waveform etc.). The increased requirements on supervision, control, and performance in modern power systems make power quality monitoring a common practice for utilities. Power signal waveforms are not clean 50 Hz sine waves. Waveform distortion is an important aspect of power quality. In a power system, harmonics, transient impulses and noise are mainly responsible for waveform distortion. Harmonic analysis is an important part of power quality monitoring system

[1] V. E. Wagner, J. C. Balda, T. M. Barnes, A. E. Emannuel, R. J. Ferraro,D. C. Griffith, D.P. Hartmann,W. F. Horton,W. T. Jewell, A. McEachern,D. J. Phileggi, and W. E. Reid, ―Effectsof harmonics on equipment,‖ IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 672–680, Apr. 1993.

[2] R. D. Henderson and P. J. Rose, ―Harmonics: The effects on power quality and transformers,‖ IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 528–532, May/Jun. 1994.

[3] IEEE Recommended Practices and Requirements for Harmonic Control in Electrical PowerSystems, IEEE Std. 519-1992, 1993.

[4] A. McEachern, W. M. Grady, W. A. Moncrief, G. T. Heydt, and M. McGranaghan,―Revenue and harmonics: An evaluation of some proposed rate structures,‖ IEEE Trans.Power Del., vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 474– 482, Jan. 1995.

[5] ―Practical definitions for powers in systems with nonsinusoidal waveforms and unbalancedloads: A discussion,‖ IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 79–101, Jan. 1996.