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Volume 3 ~ Issue 6 ~ Version 4 (June 2013)

 

Paper Type

::

Research Paper

Title

::

Green Open Space Scenarios in Reducing CO2 Emissions in Malang City, Indonesia: A Dynamic System Approach

Country

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Indonesia

Authors

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Ferry Andriono ||, Imam Hanafi ||, Bagyo Yanuwiadi ||, Soemarno

Page No.

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01-13

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10.9790/3021-03640113
aned   0.4/3021-03640113 aned
iosrjen   3021-0306-0413 iosrjen

Purposes of this study were (1) to contruct model of Green Open Space as sequester CO2 emissions in Malang City, and (2) to design scenarios of Green Open Space policies in order to optimize the absorption of CO2 emissions in Malang City. This study envolved the quantitative and qualitative approaches, using modeling software tools of "Powersim Constructor". Procedures in this study included (1) the collection, presentation and analysis of data, (2) developing dynamic models by using software of Powersim Contructor : system analysis; developing dynamic models; evaluating several scenarios, (3) development of policy alternatives model. Based on the developed model, it is suggested that declining trend of Green Open Space (GOS) in Malang city; at beginning of simulation periode (2010), areas of GOS about to 5,259.83 ha, whereas at the end of simulation periode (2060) only 1,940.56 ha. Absorption of CO2 emissions about 158,620.98 tons/year at 2010, and decreased to 78,976.37 tons / year at 2060. This was due to the significant decreasing of GOS areas in Malang City. CO2 emissions continue to increase, which at the beginning of simulation periode (2010) amounted to 124,630.06 tons/year and increased to 677,651.20 tons / year at the final periode simulation (2060). CO2 emissions increase annually in line with the increasing number of vehicles in Malang City. The increasing number of vehicles and fuel oil consumption result in the CO2 emissions. The Addition of trees population in Malang City as many as 28,491 trees (2016), and at the end of the simulation (2060) must be about 3,508,743 trees. Policy analysis model of GOS in Malang City formulated three scenarios, namely independent, moderate and sustainable scenario. Simulation results of the independent scenario, showed that areas of green open space at the end of simulation periode (2060) only 587.83 ha (with total CO2 emissions amounted to 1,020,768.97 tons / year, the absorption of C02 emissions by 32,997.29 tons / year, and the addition of trees population about 5,785,882 tree). The moderate scenario suggested that at the end of simulation periode (2060) the Green Open Space areas about 2,028.30 ha (with total CO2 emissions amounted to 391,930.80 tons / year, the absorption of C02 emissions by 132,694.84 tons / year, and the addition of trees population about 1,518,477 tree). While the sustainable scenario showed the areas of Green Open Space about 3,324.14 ha (the total CO2 emissions of only 283,035.18 tons / year, the absorption of C02 emissions amounted to 183,574.93 tons / year, and the addition of trees population about 582,589 tree). With the increase of land coverage of urban trees, a more amount of CO2 are absorbed, and the residual of CO2 emissions getting lower. The recommended ways in reducing CO2 emissions in Malang City are : saving fuel oil (diesel fuel and gasoline fuel), restriction ownership of private vehicles, especially motorcycles and private cars, efforts to use LPG, improving qualities of existing public transportation systems. The sustainable scenario can be implemented as an effective policies in development of urban GOS in Malang City.

 

Keywords: green open space, CO2 emissions, dynamic model

[1] F. Andriono , I. Hanafi, B. Yanuwiadi, Soemarno, Dynamic of Green Open Space and Temperature Humidity Index in Malang City, The International Journal of Engineering And Science, Vol 2 Issue 3, 2013, 26-32.

[2] Suwarli, R.P.S Sitorus , Widiatmaka, P. Eik, Kholil, Dynamics of Land Use Change and Green Open Space Strategy Based Budget Allocation Regional Environment (Case StudyBekasi), Graduate Forum, Vol.35, No1,January 2012, 37-52.

[3] I. Masakazu, Urbanization, Urban Environment and Land Use: Challenges and Opportunities, Asia-Pacific Forum for Environment and Development Expert Meeting, Guilin, 2003.

[4] S.M.A. Haq, Urban Green Spaces and an Integrative Approach to Sustainable Environment, Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol 2, 2011, 601-608.

[5] A. Suryantoro, Land use changes in the city of Yogyakarta Year 1959-1996 with Using Aerial Photographs, Dissertation, Graduate School, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, 2002.

 

Paper Type

::

Research Paper

Title

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Charge and Current Simulation Method with Boundary Element Method for Grounding System Calculations in Case of Multi-Layer Soil

Country

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Egypt

Authors

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Sherif S. M. Ghoneim

Page No.

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14-22

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10.9790/3021-03641422
aned   0.4/3021-03641422 aned
iosrjen   3021-0306-0422 iosrjen

Grounding resistance is not only the measurable parameter to give an information about the performance of grounding grids due to discharging current into grounding grids Grounding grids but it is preferable to include the distribution of surface potential and, subsequently, the touch and step voltages over the area above the substation grounding grid and beyond. This paper focuses on the analytical methods to compute not only the Grounding resistance but also the earth surface potential. Three methods are used to compute (Rg) and (ESP). The first one is the charge simulation method , the second is current simulation method and the last one is the boundary element method (BEM). For BEM, commercial software TOTBEM by university of La Cournia, Spain is used for computing ESP and Rg. The owned Fortran code for the first and second method is developed to calculate the ESP and Rg. This study is taken into account the type of the soil. In case of grounding resistance, a comparison between the three methods results and IEEE Standard formula is presented. The results refers that the Fortran code is valid for ESP and Rg calculations.

 

Index Terms: - Grounding grids, Earth surface potential, Step voltage, Touch voltage, Boundary element method, Charge simulation method, current simulation method.

[1] IEEE Guide for safety in AC substation grounding, IEEE Std.80-2000.
[2] J. G. Sverak, "Progress in step and touch voltage equations of ANSI/IEEE Std. 80," IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 13, no. 3, Jul. 1999, pp. 762-767.
[3] J. M. Nahman, V. B. Djordjevic, "Nonuniformity correction factors for maximum mesh and step voltages of ground grids and combined ground electrodes," IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 10, no. 3, Jul. 1995, pp. 1263-1269.
[4] J. M. Nahman, V. B. Djordjevic, "Maximum step voltages of combined grid-multiple rods ground electrodes," IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 13, no. 3, Jul. 1998, pp. 757-761.

[5] S. Serri Dessouki, S. Ghoneim, S. Awad," Ground Resistance, Step and Touch Voltages For A Driven Vertical Rod Into Two Layer Model Soil", International Conference Power System Technology, POWERCON2010, Hangzhou, China, October 2010.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

::

Multi-agent Negotiation Computation in Agile Supply Chain

Country

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Taiwan

Authors

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Yee Ming Chen

Page No.

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23-30

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10.9790/3021-03642330
aned   0.4/3021-03642330 aned
iosrjen   3021-0306-0430 iosrjen

This paper proposes a new approach for tackling the agile supply chain of identifying suitable supplier offers; evaluating the offers and choosing the best outsource fashion apparels in multi-agent negotiation. An integrated analytic hierarchy process (AHP) with multi-agent technique based multi-criteria decision-making methodology is then developed to consider both qualitative and quantitative factors in supplier selection. We focused on multi-agent negotiation mechanism including qualitative conditions which could enables automated negotiation on multiple attributes. Then, fuzzy membership function represented the buyer/seller's cognition for each condition such as quantity, cost, quality, and delivery for the outsourced fashion apparels. Finally, a case study in a fashion manufacturing company is given to demonstrate the potential of the methodology.

 

Keywords: - Multi-agent negotiation, Analytic hierarchy process, Agile supply chain management

[1] K. S. Bhutta and F. Huq, Supplier selection problem: a comparison of the total cost of ownership and analytic hierarchy process approaches ,2002.
[2] C. A. Weber, J. R. Current and W. C. Benton, Vendor selection criteria and methods. European Journal of Operational Research, 50, 1991, pp,2–18
[3] H. Yan, Z. Yu and T. C. E. Cheng, A Strategic model for supply chain design with logical constraints: formulation and solution. Computers & Operations Research. September, 2003, pp. 1-21.
[4] R. C. Oliveira and J. C. Lourenço, A multicriteria model for assigning new orders to service suppliers, European Journal of Operational Research. 2002, pp.390-399.

[5] J. R. Vokurka, J. Choobineh and L. Vadi, A prototype expert system for the evaluation and selection of potential suppliers, International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 16(12), 1996, pp. 106-127.

 

Paper Type

::

Review Paper

Title

::

Comparative Study on Receivers Performance Using DFE and LE Equalizer for Uwb Communication System

Country

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India

Authors

::

Shailja Rajput ||, Mr . Rakesh Mandal

Page No.

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31-34

::
10.9790/3021-03643134
aned   0.4/3021-03643134 aned
iosrjen   3021-0306-0434 iosrjen

In This paper comparison results are presented for receiver used for UWB communication system .we have taken in to account of impact of all the parameter such as Rake fingers and equalization tap on the error performance and SNR. Rake receivers can be employed since they are able to provide multipath diversity .another aspect is to combate the inter-symbol-interference(ISI) ,this distorts the transmitted signal. A semi analytical approach and mote-carlo simulation are used to investigate the BER performance of receivers on IEEE 802.15.3a UWB channel mode. we observe that the performance of MMSE Time domain equliser with DFE is high as compared to other receiver.

 

Index Terms: - UWB,BER,SNR,DFE,Arake , Prake, Srake receiver

[1] A. Rajeswaran, V.S. Somayazulu and J. Foerster, "Rake performance for apulse based UWB system in a realistic UWB indoor channel", IEEE ICC'03.,vol. 4, pp. 2879-2883, May 2003.

[2] S. Gezici, H. V. Poor and H. Kobayashi, "Optimal and Suboptimal Finger Selection Algorithms for MMSE Rake Receivers in Impulse Radio Ultra-Wideband Systems", in Proc IEEE WCNC 2005, New-Orleans, Mar. 2005.

[3] J. R. Foerster, "The effect of multipath interference on the performance of UWB systems in an indoor wireless channel", in Proc. 2001 Spring VehicularTechnology Conf., pp. 1176-1180, May 2001.

[4] J. D. Choi and W. E. Stark, "Performance of ultra-wideband communications with suboptimal receivers in multipath channels", IEEE J.Select. Areas Commun., vol. 20, pp. 1754-1766, Dec. 2002.

[5] D. Cassioli, M. Z. Win, F. vAtalaro and F. Molisch, "Performance of lowcomplexityRAKE reception in a Realistic UWB channel", in Proc. Int. Conf.Commun. (ICC), vol. 2, May 2002, pp. 763-767.