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Volume 4 ~ Issue 7 ~ Version 1 (July 2014)

 

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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The Effect of the Radius of Covalent Bond on Melting Temperature of Organic Compounds

Country

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Kuwait

Authors

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Ajeel F. A. Al-Zafeeri

Page No.

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05-08

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10.9790/3021-04710508
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iosrjen   3021-0407-0108 iosrjen

This paper presents a discussion of the effects of covalent radius value in producing new organic compounds, the value of covalent bond radius will be changed either by increasing or decreasing and hence a new organic compounds or new properties organic compounds will be created. It is found that the value of the covalent radius has really considerable effects on changing organic compounds properties such as melting point temperature.

 

Keywords: - Organic Compounds, Covalent Radius, Chemical Bonds, Organic Compounds Properties, Thermodynamics.

[1]. B. M. Mikhailov, 2004, Covalent radii of carbon and the conjugation problem, Russian chemical bulletin, springer, vol. (8), no. (8), pp: 1284-1290.
[2]. CHUNG CHI CHOU and JAMES L .McATEE, Jr.1969, Thermal Decomposition Of Organo-ammonium Compounds Exchanged Onto Montmorillonite And Hectorit, Clays and Clay Minerals, 1969, Vol .17, pp .
339-346 .Pergamon Press .
[3]. Nicholas J .Turro, 2002, supramolecular organic photochemistry :Control of covalent bond formation through noncovalent supramolecular interactions and magnetic effects, PNAS _ April 16, 2002 _ vol .99 _ no .8 _ 4805–4809.
[4]. S.A.Abd El–Maksoud, 2008, The Effect of Organic Compounds on the Electrochemical Behavior of Steel in Acidic Media .A review, Int .J .Electrochem .Sci., 3: )528 –555).
[5]. Steven S .Cox, Alfred T .Hodgson, and John C .Little, 2002, Measuring Concentrations of Volatile Organic Compounds in Vinyl Flooring, LBNL-47086, Accepted by Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 04/01.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

::

Generation of an Annual Typical Meteorological Wind Speed for Armidale NSW,Australia

Country

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Australia

Authors

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Yasser Maklad

Page No.

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09-14

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10.9790/3021-04710914
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0.4/3021-04710914 aned
iosrjen   3021-0407-0114 iosrjen

The most common data for describing the local wind climate is through what is called Typical Meteorological Year data (TMY). Typical wind speed data is very important for the calculations of many wind applications. In this study, Typical Wind Speed year for Armidale town in New South Wales in Australia are generated from the daily and monthly wind speed data measured at ten meter height from ground level and collected for 20 years during the period 1994 to 2013, utilising the Finkelstein-Schafer statistical method. The study outcome is expected to show how wind speed is potential in Armidale NSW and would be a real help for wind energy generation systems' designers in this region for all building applications varying between residential, educational, administrative and commercial for sizing and maximising efficiency of such systems by using the tabular TYR outcome for the each day of the year.

 

Keywords:- Armidale NSW, test meteorological year, test reference year, wind speed

[1] A. Argiriou, S. Lykoudis, S. Kontoyiannidis, C.A. Balaras, D. Asimakopoulos, M. Petrakis, and P.Kassomenos. Comparison of methodologies for TMY generation using 20 years data forAthens, Greece. Solar Energy 66(1), 1999, 33–45.
[2] W. Marion and K. Urban. User's Manual for TMY2s. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Colorado, USA, 1995.
[3] H. Bulut. Generation of typical solar radiation data for Istanbul, Turkey. International Journal of Energy Research 27(9), 2003, 847–855.
[4] H. Bulut. Typical Solar Radiation Year for South-eastern Anatolia. Renewable Energy 29(9), 2004, 1477–1488.

[5] R.L. Fagbenle. Generation of a test reference year for Ibadan, Nigeria. Energy Conversion andManagement 30(1), 1995, 61–63.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Design of Mechanical Hydraulic Jack

Country

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India

Authors

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K.Sainath ||, Mohd Salahuddin ||, Mohd Jibran Baig ||, MdAzam Ali Farooky ||, Mohammed Siddique Ahmed ||, Mohd RiyazUddin ||, Faraz Ur Rehman Azhar ||, Md Shaffi

Page No.

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15-28

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10.9790/3021-04711528
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0.4/3021-04711528 aned
iosrjen   3021-0407-0128 iosrjen
A jack is a device that uses force to lift heavy loads. The primary mechanism with which force is applied varies, depending on the specific type of jack, but is typically a screw thread or a hydraulic cylinder. Jacks can be categorized based on the type of force they employ: mechanical or hydraulic. Mechanical jacks, such as car jacks and house jacks, lift heavy equipmentand are rated based on lifting capacity (for example, the number of tons they can lift). Hydraulic jacktend to be stronger and can lift heavier loads higher, and include bottle jacks and floor jacks. HYDRAULIC JACKSdepend on force generated by pressure. Essentially, if two cylinders (a large and a small one) are connected and force is applied to one cylinder, equal pressure is generated in both cylinders. However, because one cylinder has a larger area, the force the larger cylinder produces will be higher, although the pressure in the two cylinders will remain the same. Hydraulic jacks depend on this basic principle to lift heavy loads: they use pump plungers to move oil through two cylinders. The plunger is first drawn back, which opens the suction valve ball within and draws oil into the pump chamber. As the plunger is pushed forward, the oil moves through an external discharge check valve into the cylinder chamber, and the suction valve closes, which results in pressure building within the cylinder.

[1] Electric Scissor Jacks, Jackmaster. "Electric Scissor Jacks". Retrieved 8 February 2014.

[2] William Cox (July 2001), "Light Talk On Heavy Jacks", Old-House Journal: 37

[3] Brian S. Elliott (2006), "Air-Over-Hydraulic Jacks", Compressed Air Operations Manual, Mcgraw-Hill Professional, Pp. 56–58, Isbn 978-0-07-147526-6

[4] George William Sutcliffe (1895), Steam Power And Mill Work Principles And Modern Practice, Whittaker & Co., P. 828, "The Bottle-Jack Is Exceedingly Firm And Safe For Short Vertical Lifts, But Is Not Convenient For Pushing In A Horizontal Or Oblique Direction."

[5] John Norman (2009), Fire Department Special Operations, Fire Engineering Books, P. 51, Isbn 978-1-59370-193-2

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

::

Elimination of Wastes In Die Casting Industry By Lean Manufacturing: A Case Study

Country

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India

Authors

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Sumit Kumar Singh ||, Deepak Kumar ||, Tarun Gupta

Page No.

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29-35

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10.9790/3021-04712935
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0.4/3021-04712935 aned
iosrjen   3021-0407-0135 iosrjen

As the competition in market is growing at a very fast pace, one can survive in today's industrial world by adopting the philosophy of Lean Manufacturing. In order to stay competitive, producing cheaper products at a faster rate Lean Manufacturing would help the industry. This paper represents a case study of Die casting industry. This case study is used to illustrate the steps in implementation of lean manufacturing providing actual and very positive results. The implementation plan is based on five major areas of wastes including Defects, Inventory, Excessive material movement, Delay due to waiting and Inappropriate processing in a die casting industry. The suggested implementation plan is being sub divided into three phases.

 

Keywords: - Lean Manufacturing, Die casting, Wastes.

[1] Shingo, S., 1987. The Sayings of Shigeo Shingo: Key Strategies for Plant Improvement. Productivity Press, Cambridge, MA. [2] Black, J.T., Hunter, S.L., 2003. Lean Manufacturing Systems and Cell Design. Society of Manufacturing Engineers, Dearborn, MI.

[3] Conner, G., 2001. Lean Manufacturing for the Small Shop. Society of Manufacturing Engineers, Dearborn, MI.

[4] Jordan, J.A., Jr., Michel, F.J., 1999. Valuing Lean Manufacturing Initiatives. Society of Manufacturing Engineers Technical Paper No. MS01-104, pp. 1-15.

[5] M. Brian Thomas, Laboratory exercises for teaching lean enterprise, Proceedings of ASEE Conference and Expo, 2007.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Improved Association Rule Hiding Algorithm for Privacy Preserving Data Mining

Country

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India

Authors

::

Hiren R. kamani ||, Supriya Byreddy

Page No.

::

36-41

::
10.9790/3021-04713641
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0.4/3021-04713641 aned
iosrjen   3021-0407-0141 iosrjen

the main objective of data mining is to extract previously unknown patterns from large collection of data. With the rapid growth in hardware, software and networking technology there is outstanding growth in the amount data collection. Organizations collect huge volumes of data from heterogeneous databases which also contain sensitive and private information about and individual .The data mining extracts novel patterns from such data which can be used in various domains for decision making .The problem with data mining output is that it also reveals some information, which are considered to be private and personal. Easy access to such personal data poses a threat to individual privacy. There has been growing concern about the chance of misusing personal information behind the scene without the knowledge of actual data owner. Privacy is becoming an increasingly important issue in many data mining applications in distributed environment. Privacy preserving data mining technique gives new direction to solve this problem. PPDM gives valid data mining results without learning the underlying data values .The benefits of data mining can be enjoyed, without compromising the privacy of concerned individuals. The original data is modified or a process is used in such a way that private data and private knowledge remain private even after the mining process. The objective of this paper is to implement an improved association rule hiding algorithm for privacy preserving data mining. This paper compares the performance of proposed algorithm with the two existing algorithms namely ISL, DSR and WSDA.

 

Index Terms: - Privacy Preservation Rule Mining, Sensitive Data, association rule hiding.

[1] R.Natarajan, Dr.R.Sugumar, M.Mahendran, K.Anbazhagan, "Design and Implement an Association Rule hiding Algorithm for Privacy Preserving Data Mining" International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer and Communication Engineering Vol. 1, Issue 7, September 2012.
[2] M. Atallah, E. Bertino, A. Elmagamind, M. Ibrahim, and V. S. Verykios "Disclosure limitation of sensitive rules," .In Proc. of the 1999 IEEE Knowledge and Data Engineering Exchange Workshop (KDEX 1999), pp. 45-52.
[3] Verykios, V.S., Elmagarmid, A., Bertino, E., Saygin, Y., and Dasseni, E. "Association rule hiding", IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, 2004, 16(4): pp. 434-447.
[4] Y. Saygin, V. Verykios, and C. Clifton, "Using Unknowns to Prevent Discovery of Association Rules" ACM SIGMOD, Vol. 30, No. 4, pp. 45–54, 2001.
[5] Y. Saygin, V. Verykios, and A. Elmagarmid, "Privacy preserving association rule mining," In: Proc. Int'l. Workshop on Research Issues in Data Engineering (RIDE 2002), pp.151–163, 2002.

 

Paper Type

::

Research Paper

Title

::

Practical Approach for Detection Of Failure Of Distribution Transformers And Their Remidies

Country

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India

Authors

::

B.Suresh Kumar

Page No.

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42-45

::
10.9790/3021-04714245
aned
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0.4/3021-04714245 aned
iosrjen   3021-0407-0145 iosrjen
Power is generated at lower voltage like 11KV and 13.8 KV in generating stations which are far away from the load centre. The power is transmitted to the load centers at extra high voltages like 132KV, 220KV and 400KV to reduce the losses and to improve the system efficiency. The power of these higher voltages is stepped down at various E.H.T., 33/11KV and 11KV/400V Sub-stations to attain the requirements of the consumers of different categories.

Practical Approach for Detection Of Failure Of Distribution Transformers And Their Remidies.

Asst.Professor-CBIT-Hyderabad

Power is generated at lower voltage like 11KV and 13.8 KV in generating stations which are far away

 

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

::

Suitability of Natural Gravels in Ghana for Otta Seal Construction

Country

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Ghana

Authors

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Y. A. Tuffour ||, A. Braimah

Page No.

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46-53

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10.9790/3021-04714653
aned
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0.4/3021-04714653 aned
iosrjen   3021-0407-0153 iosrjen

Otta seals are bituminous chip seals constructed to upgrade low-volume gravel roads to surfaced standards using natural gravel or crushed rock containing some amount of fines for the seal coat. Currently, the Department of Feeder Roads in Ghana is piloting Otta seal field trials as a precursor to a more extensive application of the technology nationwide. However, the success of the application will depend on the availability of natural gravel of the required quality to support the construction. This study evaluated natural gravel samples from over 150 gravel deposits distributed throughout Ghana to establish their suitability for Otta seal construction. Particle size distribution, strength of the coarse particles, and the plasticity of the fines were used to assess the gravels in line with Otta seal requirements. Most (about 80%) of the gravels met strength requirements measured by the 10% Fines Value (both dry and wet) but failed Otta seal grading and Atterberg limits requirements. However, after the gravels had been screened to remove out-of-specification sizes and reduce the quantities of fractions with excessive contents, about 75% met Otta seal requirements. On average, screening did not result in more than 32% wastage in gravel quantity. It is recommended that the amount of gravel wastage must be factored into the cost of materials for costing of the construction.

 

Keywords: - Low-Volume Roads, Natural Gravel, Otta Seal, Screening, Suitability

[1] C. Gourley, A. Greening, D. Jones, and R. Petts, Paving the Way for Rural Development & Poverty Reduction. Presented at the 20th Conference of ASEAN Federation of Engineering Organisations (CAFEO 20), Phnom Penh, Cambodia, 2 – 4 September 2002. Available at http://www.transport-links.org/transport_links/filearea/publications/1_803_PA%203938-03.pdf
[2] R. Petts, Rationale for the Compilation of International Guidelines for Low-Cost sustainable Road Surfacing, Low-Cost Road Surfacing Project Working Paper No. 1, Intertech Associates, March 2002. Available at: http://www1.mt.gov.vn/gtnt2/05%20PDF%20Files/INTECH/Working%20Paper1h-a/Section%201_ENG.pdf
[3] S. Oloo, R. Lindsay, and S. Mothilal, Otta Seals and Gravseals as Low-Cost Surfacing Alternatives for Low-Volume Roads: Experiences in South Africa, Transportation Research Record 1819B, 2003, pp 338-342.
[4] Transport Research Laboratory (TRL), Manual for the labour-based construction of bituminous surfacings on low-volume roads, Department for International Development, Crowthorne , UK, 2003.
[5] J. W. S De Graft-Johnson, H. S. Bhatia, and D. M. Gidigasu, The Engineering Characteristics of the Laterite Gravels of Ghana, Building and Road research Institute (BRRI), Kumasi, Ghana, 1969.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Studies on the Influence of Polymeric Additives as Flow Improvers for Waxy Crude Oil

Country

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Egypt

Authors

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H. I. Al-Shafy ||, E.A. Ismail

Page No.

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54-61

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10.9790/3021-04715461
aned
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0.4/3021-04715461 aned
iosrjen   3021-0407-0161 iosrjen

Several techniques have been used to minimize the problems caused by the wax deposition, and the continuous addition of polymeric inhibitors is considered an attractive technological alternative. The copolymer of ethylene acrylic acid, PEAA, was esterified with 1-Docosonol to produce ester copolymer. The produced ester was grafted with vinyl acetate monomer (30 %) to produce graft ester, PEAA-DcA-g-VA. The products were purified and characterized by FT-IR and 1HNMR. The behaviors of crude oils as flow improvers (rheological measurements and pour point depressant) onto Khalda Petroleum Co. (KhPC), Sumpetco and Salam Base crude oils were evaluated. The shear rate-shear stress and shear rate-apparent viscosity were measured at different concentration (from 500 to 3000 ppm) and temperatures below, equal and above the pour point temperature (15, 24 and 30oC). A correlation between both results was also obtained. The evaluations of the efficiency of these copolymers as pour point depressants for tested crude oil using 500 to 3000 ppm from the prepared samples were studied. The pour point measurements show good reduction of pour point temperature from 27 to 6 oC depending on the composition and location of tested crude oil. The results were shown that, the prepared graft copolymers can used as flow improvers.

 

Keywords: - Flow improvers, Oil additives, Pour point depressants, Waxy crudes.

[1] P. Hemant Soni1 and P. Dinakar Bharambe, Synthesis and Evaluation of Polymeric Additives as Flow Improvers for Indian Crude Oil, Iranian Polymer Journal, 15(12), 2006, 943-954.
[2] M.C. Garcia, L. Carbognani, A. Urbina and M. Orea, Paraffin depositon in oil production. Oil composition and paraffin inhibitors activity. J.Petrol. Sci. Technol., 16(9), 1998, 1001.
[3] V. Laura Castro, A. Eugenio Flores and Flavio Vazquez, Terpolymers as Flow Improvers for Mexican Crude Oils, Energy Fuels, 25, 2011, 539–544.
[4] A. Rafael, Soldi, R.S. Angelo, Oliveira, V. Ronilson, Barbosa, A.F. Maria and Ce´sar-Oliveira J. European Polymer, 43, 2007, 3671.
[5] Yuping Song, Tianhui Rena, Xisheng Fu, Xiaohong Xu, Study on the relationship between the structure and activities of alkyl methacrylate–maleic anhydride polymers as cold flow improvers in diesel fuels, Fuel Processing Technology, 86, 2005, 641– 650.