Home
      Editorial Committies
      Aims & Scope
      Indexing
      Ethics
      Review Process
   
   
      Call for paper
      Submit an Article
      Payment Option
      FAQs
      Contact Us
   
   
      Current Issue
      Archives
      Special Issues
Volume 5 ~ Issue 11 ~ Version 1 (November 2015)

 


Paper Type

::

Research Paper

Title

::

The Stability Aspects of Prepared cis isomers of lutein

Country

::

Czech Republic

Authors

::

Barbora Hrvolová ||, Jiří Kalina

Page No.

::

01-04

::
XXXX
aned
::
0.4/3021-051110104 aned
iosrjen
::
3021-0511-0104 iosrjen

The carotenoids, which also include lutein, are simple prenyl lipids. Their carbon skeleton consists of isoprenoid units that form long aliphatic conjugated systems of double bonds. Lutein can create geometrical isomers, all-trans and cis forms, due to the presence of delocated double bonds. Their different structures result in different physical and chemical properties. Due to their properties the cis isomers potentially have a higher antioxidant effect. All-trans forms are generally considered to be more stable than cis forms. The main aim of this work was to present a possible use of isomers as a potentially improved antioxidant, and therefore we investigated their thermal stability. During exposure to 36°C and 40°C we observed a decrease in the all-trans form and an increase in both lutein cis forms. The first cis isomer was created with a higher probability than the second cis isomer. We observed the almost the same behaviour during the exposure to 6°C. The cis forms remained stable at 36°C and 40°C for a period of one hour and at 6°C for a period of 5 days. The quantity of cis forms rose at the expense of the all-trans form.

 

Keywords: Thermal stability; Lutein; Isomers; High performance liquid chromatography

[1] L. Feltl, V. Pacáková, K. Štulík, K. Volka, Reliability of carotenoid analyses: A review, Current Analytical Chemistry, 1, 2005, 93-102.
[2] I. Baroli, K.K. Niyogi, Molecular genetics of xanthophyll-dependent photoprotection in green algae and plants, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 355, 2000, 1385-1394.
[3] R. Ausich, J. Newman, A. Ueltschy, H. Johnson, F.Z. Sheabar, R. Dann, T. Emmick, Process of converting trans lutein into cis lutein and the uses thereof, Patent application publication US 20040126338, 10 (331), 2004, 801.
[4] L. Zhao, B.V. Sweet, Lutein and zeaxanthin for macular degeneration, American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 65(13), 2008, 1232-1238.
[5] W. Stahl, H. Sies, Bioactivity and protective effects of natural carotenoids, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 1740, 2005, 101–107.

 

Paper Type

::

Research Paper

Title

::

Hydrodynamic Sonochemistry in Food Processing

Country

::

Russia

Authors

::

Prof. T. Shlenskaya ||, Prof. S. Shestakov ||, Prof. E. Smeshek ||, Assoc. T. Baulina ||, Assoc. I. Scherbakova ||, Assoc. Y. Zubtsova

Page No.

::

05-11

::
XXXX
aned
::
0.4/3021-051110511 aned
iosrjen
::
3021-0511-0111 iosrjen

paper presents a detailed analysis of the physico-chemical effects of acoustic cavitation used in food processing. The mechanism of interaction between acoustic cavitation and food media is discussed. An overview of recent studies carried out on dairy processing using acoustic cavitation is provided along with a full analysis of these studies. The acoustic cavitation reactors available in the market are not suitable for large-scale food processing despite positive results obtained with laboratory and pilot scale experiments. Considering a new approach to the theory of cavitation in rotary machines, it has been suggested that hydrodynamic cavitation can be an alternative to acoustic cavitation in food processing applications involving large volumes. A model that has been developed is suitable for the construction of new generation cavitational rotary disintegrators.

 

Keywords: - Food sonochemistry, hydrodynamic cavitation, cavitational rotary disintegrator.

[1]. Margulis M.A. Sonochemistry – a new promising field of high-energy chemistry // Chemistry of High Energies, T.38, 3, 2004
[2]. Mawson R., Knoerzer K. A brief history of the application of ultrasonics in food processing // 19-th ICA Congress, Madrid, 2007
[3]. Ashokkumar M. at al. The ultrasonic processing of dairy products // Dairy Science and Technology, V.90, 2010, pp. 147-168
[4]. Ashokkumar M. at al. Modification of food ingredients by ultrasound to improve functionality: A preliminary study on a model system // Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies, Vol. 9, 2008, pp. 155–160
[5]. Shestakov S. Food sonochemistry: the concept, the theoretical aspects and practical applications.- Saarbruecken: Lambert Academic Publishing, 2012

 

Paper Type

::

Research Paper

Title

::

Analysis on the Member 1 of Liushagang Formation Water BreakthroughDistribution in Block Huachang X of Fushan oilfield, Beibuwan Basin

Country

::

China

Authors

::

Wenyan Feng

Page No.

::

12-19

::
XXXX
aned
::
0.4/3021-051111219 aned
iosrjen
::
3021-0511-0119 iosrjen

Water-free oil production period is the significant attention problem of oilfield development. To final determination the time of water breakthrough, it's supposed that one source –one convergence point seepage field. So we can derive it if according to Beckley-Leverett equation and use fractional flow equation which based on relative permeability after normalization. And then we can get almost one year water cut alignment chart (water logging state chart diagram) if we use way triangular interpolation to analyze the water cut change of production well. Finally we verify and calculate the water breakthrough time realistically, so this method is feasible.

 

Key words: - One source-one convergence, The time of water breakthrough, Water logging condition

[1]. Guo F.Z., Xi T.D. and Meng X.G., et al. Analysis of water breakthrough rules of oil-well in low permeability reservoir. Journal of Northeast Petroleum University. Vol. 37(2013)No. 3, p. 87-93.
[2]. Chen M.F., Li X.F. and Shi J.H. , et al. Study on water breakthrough rule and main controlling factors for
composite sandstone reservoir with edge and bottom water. Complex Hydrocarbon Reservoirs, Vol. 7(2014) No. 4, p. 45-49.
[3]. Sandro Aiango, Eduardo A, Heetor H.Perez. A new methodology to estimate fraeture intensity index for naturally fractured reservoirs. SPE 86935.
[4]. Qu G.H., Liu Y.K., Jiang S.D. Research on development factors affecting oil recovery of polymer flooding. Energy Education Science and Technology Part A, Vol. 31(2013)No. 3, p. 1787-1794.
[5]. B.Palsson, D.RJDavies and A.C.Todd. Water Injection Optimized with Statistical Methods, SPE 84048.

 

Paper Type

::

Research Paper

Title

::

Technique of fault interpretation

Country

::

China

Authors

::

LI Zhiyang ||, MA Shizhong

Page No.

::

20-24

::
XXXX
aned
::
0.4/3021-051112024 aned
iosrjen
::
3021-0511-0124 iosrjen

The accuracy and rationality of fault interpretation is directly related to the accuracy of tectonic interpretation. To explain more accurate fault, the fault can be divided into two kinds, one is large and medium-sized and another is small and studied respectively. The study found that under the guidance of the forward model, through the profile and union of photograph of coherence and the method of fault arbitrarily line can explain the large and medium-sized fault greatly. Using the upper and lower strata of the corresponding change, local amplification in section, combination of multiple attribute technology can explain the small fault well.

 

Keywords: fault interpretation; forward model; multiple attribute

[1]. Liu Yan, Meng Xiaohong, Hu Jinmin, Wu Jiangnan. Faults identifying technique and it's application in MB oil-gas field[J]. Progress in Geophysics, 2008, 23(2): 515-521.
[2]. Xiao kaiyu, Hu Xiangyun. Forward Seismic Modeling Technology in the Application of Interpretation[J]. Journal of Engineering Geophysics, 2009, 6(4): 459-464.
[3]. Li Jianxiong, Cui Quanzhang, Wei Xiaodong. Application of seismic attributes in micro-fault interpretation[J]. Oil Geophysical Prospecting, 2011, 46(6): 925-929.
[4]. Wang Yanjun, Yong Xueshan, Liu Yingru, Su Mingjun, Fang Lehua, Cai Gang. Research and application of small fault identification technology[J]. Progress in Exploration Geophysics, 2007, 30(2): 135-139.
[5]. Zhou Shang, Wang Yongli, Han TianBao, Li Nan, Shi Delian, Cheng Peng, Fang Hai Fei, Zhang Ying, Ma Yihong. Small faults Comprehensive interpretation technique and its application[J]. Oil GeophysicalProspecting, 2012, 47(S1): 50-54.

 

Paper Type

::

Research Paper

Title

::

The Discussion of The Relationship Between Tight Coal Bed and The Generation of CBM(Coalbed Methane) In The Boli Basin

Country

::

China

Authors

::

Jingying Li ||, a Qingtao Wei

Page No.

::

25-28

::
XXXX
aned
::
0.4/3021-051112528 aned
iosrjen
::
3021-0511-0128 iosrjen

Boli basin is rich in coal and sizable CBM production . Tight coal bed is developed in the basin and its relationship with coalbed methane generation is rarely mentioned in other papers.According to the relevant experimental samples and related essays, this essay had a discussion on the density of boli basin coal bed and its relationship of CBD in boli basin.As we draw the conclusion that under the geological conditions of the Boli basin that tight coal bed is good for the generation of CBM and its production.This conclusion may be as a good reference of researching and exploitation of coalbed methane to other similar basin which has the same geological condition as boli basin.

 

Keywords: densification,coal bed,land sea interaction,CBM(Coalbed Methane)

[1]. Hood A et al.Organic metamorphism and the generation of petroleum,A.A.P.G.Bulletine. 1975;59(6)
[2]. Levine J.R.Coalification::The evolution of coal as source and reservoir.In:Law BE,Rice.D.D.ed..Hydrocarbons from coal,AAPG Studies in Geology#38:39~78
[3]. Schraufnagel,R.A.,Coalbed methane Production In:Law,B.E.,Rice,D.D.(eds),Hydrocarbons from Coal,AAPG Studies in Geology 38,1993
[4]. Morales,H.,Davidson,5.,Holdings,M.I.M,,Analysis of coalbed methane hydraulic fracturing behavior in the Bowen Basin(Australia).In:Proceedings of the 1993 International Coalbed Methane symposium.The University of Alabama/Tusealoosa,1993.
[5]. Clayton,J.L.,Geochemistry of coalded gas一A review.International Journal of Coal Geology,1998.
[6]. Prat T.J, Mavor M.J,DeBruyn R.P.1999.Coal gas resource and production potential of subbituminous coal in the Powder River Basin.In:Proceedings of the 1999 International Coal一bed Methane Symposium,Tuscaloosa, U.S.A.23一34.

 

Paper Type

::

Research Paper

Title

::

Behavior of Soil Peat with Reinforcement of Bamboo Grid

Country

::

Indonesia

Authors

::

Aazokhi Waruwu ||, Rika Deni Susanti

Page No.

::

29-36

::
XXXX
aned
::
0.4/3021-051112936 aned
iosrjen
::
3021-0511-0136 iosrjen

Type peat soils classified as poorly as the foundation construction, because of the low shear strength, high water content, high compression and low bearing capacity. Using of bamboo grid is an alternative to improve the stability of the construction on the peat soil. Treated system can be made to improve the durability of bamboo. The research was conducted in the laboratory using a test box length 120 cm, width 90 cm, and height 90 cm. The loading plate test with a plate size of 15x15 cm2 and thickness of 1 cm. Reinforcement material using bamboo grids without and with the treated of which is placed under the foundation plate respectively 1 layer, 2 layers, and 3 layers. Peat soil reinforced of bamboo grid with and without terated generate a significant bearing capacity compared with peat without reinforcement. Generally, the more reinforcement is used, the bearing capacity of the foundation on peat soil will increase. Benefits treated of bamboo grid is not visible on the change in value of the bearing capacity of peat. It can be concluded that the effect was not significant treated of bamboo grid to increase the bearing capacity of a shallow foundation on peat.

 

Keywords: - peat, bamboo grid, treated, bearing capacity.

[1] Kalantari, B., Civil Engineering Significant of Peat, Global Journal of Researche in Engineering Civil And Structural Engineering, Vol. 13(2), 2013, 24-28.
[2] Mesri, G., dan Ajlouni, M., Engineering Properties of Fibrous Peats, Journal Of Geotechnical And Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE 133(7), 2007, 850-866.
[3] Tsushima, M., Oikawa, H., Ogino, T., dan Komatsu, J., Unconfined Compressive Strength Characteristics of Remolded and Undisturbed Peat Consolidated under Cyclic Loading, Proceedings of the Twenty-first - International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference Maui, Hawaii, USA, 2011, 415-420.
[4] Kazemian, S., Huat, B. B. K., Prasad, A., dan Barghchi, M., A state of art review of peat: Geotechnical engineering perspective, International Journal of the Physical Sciences, Vol. 6(8), 2011, 1974-1981.
[5] Razali, S. N. M., Bakar, I., dan Zainorabidin, A., Behaviour of Peat Soil in Instrumented Physical Model Studies, Procedia Engineering, Elsevier, Vol. 53, 2013, 145 – 155.

 

Paper Type

::

Research Paper

Title

::

Comparative Design of Some Nigerian Timber Roof Trusses Using BS5268.

Country

::

Nigeria

Authors

::

Ezeagu C.A. ||, Eji S.T.

Page No.

::

37-51

::
XXXX
aned
::
0.4/3021-051113751 aned
iosrjen
::
3021-0511-0151 iosrjen

This work was done to determine and compare the performance of ten different roof trusses. The truss design was done in accordance with BS5268 part 3 (1998). The design load was resolved to act on the joints of the trusses. The trusses were then analysed using method of joints, to determine the compressive and tensile axial forces acting on the truss members. The truss members wereanalysed as simply supported beams. Clapyron's theorem of three moment was used to determine the support moments, while the span moments and shear forces on the members were determined using method of section. The values of applied and permissible stresses of the trusses members are compared between the trusses. The ratio of the values of the applied to permissible stresses are determined for each truss, and compared against values of from other trusses. It was found that the lower the ratio value, the higher the adequacy of the truss member against the stresses. The average stress ratio for the different trusses were also calculated. The ratio of the applied to permissible stresses were used to evaluate the performances of the various trusses in different conditions. The comparisons were done with respect to the values of applied to permissible stress ratios. From the results obtained, the flat truss had a better performance against the others on a general basis, but this type of truss usually has drainage problems. The attic truss performed better against bending and shear stress. The mono pitch roof truss performed better against tensile stress, while the gambrel truss performed better against compressive stress.

 

Keywords; Design, Forces, Roof, Timber, and Truss

[1]. BS 5268-2: (2002). Incorporating Amendment No1: Structural Use of Timber-Part 2: Code of Practice for Permissible Stress Design, Material and Workmanship BSI. 189 pp.
[2]. BS 5268-2; (1998). Structural use oftimber- Code of practice for trussed rafter roofs. 55 pp.
[3]. BS 5268-7.6: (1990). Purlins supporting rafters: Recommendations for the calculation basis for span tables. 29
[4]. BS 6399. (1996). loading of buildings: code of practice for dead and imposed loads. 17 pp.
[5]. Chanakya, A. (2009).Design of Structural Elements (3rd Edition). Published by Taylor & Francis 2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RN. 523 pp.

 

Paper Type

::

Research Paper

Title

::

Theoretical study of light hydrocarbon analysis technique in the evaluation of oil and gas water

Country

::

China

Authors

::

YU deyi ||, Feng jun

Page No.

::

52-58

::
XXXX
aned
::
0.4/3021-051115258 aned
iosrjen
::
3021-0511-0158 iosrjen

Light hydrocarbon analysis technique, the distribution and volume fraction of the light hydrocarbon components are determined from the macro level, and the properties of the reservoir are determined by the molecular level until the functional groups. This paper mainly describes the basic theory of the light hydrocarbon logging technology and the accurate identification of chromatographic peaks and the principle of the evaluation of oil, gas and water. The molecular sieve effect of rock and its correlation with the porosity and permeability are discussed. The molecular sieve effect is the basis of accurate evaluation of oil and gas reservoir. The advantage of light hydrocarbon logging technology is mainly reflected in the information that can be obtained from two aspects of drilling fluid and cuttings, which has the characteristics of strong anti pollution ability, simple sampling and analysis parameters, and the defects can not be distinguished.

 

Keywords: - light hydrocarbon logging, basic theory, molecular sieve, the advantages of molecular sieve,Oil reservoir evaluation, parameters, spectrum, evaluation method

[1]. Mango F. D.The light hydrocarbon in petroleum: A critical review [J].Org.Geochem.1997, 7/8:417-440.

[2]. Mango F. D.The origin of light hydrocarbon in petroleum:a kinetic last of thesteady}state. catalytic hypothesis一[J] . Geochim:}Cosmochim. Acta, 1990, 54:1315-1323.

[3]. Li Yuhuan et al. Study on water layer fluorescence image technology judgment. Journal, 1999.

[4]. Zhao Xiaoli, fan Jinhua, Zhao Tingsheng. Application of engineering logging water flooded layer 2002.13 Geoohemical evaluation technology in Zaoyuan region 47-53.

[5]. Jiang Qigui, Zhang Zhirong, Song Xiaoying. Analysis of light hydrocarbon fingerprinting and its application.Geological science and technology information 2005 3.61-63.