Paper Type :: Research Paper
Title :: Energy Audit Report for the Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Umudike, Nigeria in 2017
Country :: Nigeria
Authors :: Ukoima Kelvin Nkalo
Page No. :: 01-12
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The objective of this report is to study the energy consumption of the Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike with a view to identifying energy conservation measures within the campus. Between January 2017 and November 2017, the electrical consumption totaled 782650 kWh at a cost of N45, 851, 543.49. This is equivalent to 2670512655.8 BTU of energy. For the same period, the total fuel and engine oil for the entire campus totaled N6, 629, 336.31. Energy savings up to 807.218kWh on a daily basis was identified in this report. It is recommended that machines and appliances should not be kept in standby mode. These devices should be switched off from the socket outlet when not in use. There should be penalties enacted for unnecessary power consumption by negligence of the user or system administrator for not switching off appliances while leaving the office. Other recommendations were made in the following categories: 1. Capital improvements. 2. Operations and maintenance. 3. Energy conservation measures.

Keywords: ...

[1]. EIA, Annual Energy Review, 1998. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration,, http://www.doe.eia.gov.
[2]. EIA, International Energy Annual, 1997. Report from Energy Information Administration, DOE/EIA-0219 (97), Washington, DC.
[3]. Krarti, M., 2000. Energy Audit of Building Systems: An Engineering Approach. CRC Press..


Paper Type :: Research Paper
Title :: Investigation of African Pear (Dacryodes Edulis) Resin as Binder for Briquetting
Country :: Nigeria
Authors :: Tornubari Sunday-Piaro
Page No. :: 14-20
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This study deals with investigation of breadfruit shell (BFS) as potential energy source and efficacy of resin extracted from African pear (Dacryodes Edulis) as binder for briquettes. Different concentrations of the resin were mixed with constant weight of BFS to study the effect of the resin on the performance of BFS briquette. The density, moisture content, ash content, volatile matters and fixed carbon of the BFS briquette were obtained as 0.672g/cm3, 10.24%, 7.23%, 68.76% and 23.92% respectively. This study showed that the resin has effect on the performance of the briquette. Thus, the ignition time, calorific value and fuel efficiency increased with increase in resin content, while increase in resin content decreased the mass of briquette consumed, burning rate and specific fuel consumption. The optimum performance was recorded at resin content of 0.16g/g biomass, with calorific value and fuel efficiency obtained as 20036.4kJ/kg and 51.12% respectively. Therefore, breadfruit shell is a potential energy sources, and can be useful substitute for refined petroleum products for heating..

Keywords: Briquette, Breadfruit, African pear resin, Combustion characteristics

[1]. Adeniyi, O. D., Farouk, A., Adeniyi, M. I., Auta, M., Olutoye, M. A., & Olarewaju, S. Y. (2014). Briquetting of Palm Kernel Shell Biochar Obtained Via Mild Pyrolytic Process. Lautech Journal of Engineering and Technology, 8(2), 30-34.
[2]. Akuma, O., & Charles, M. (2017). Characteristic Analysis of Bio-coal Briquette (Coal and Groundnut Shell Admixtures). International Journal of Scientific Research in Science and Technology, 2(3), 30-38.
[3]. Bandara, W., & Kowshayini, P. (2017). Evaluation of the Performances of Biomass Briquettes Produced with Invasive Eichornia crassipes (Water hyacinth), Wood Residues and Cow Dung for Small and Medium Scale Industries. Journal of Fundamentals of Renewable Energy and Applications, 8(1), 247-154.
[4]. Chin, Y. S., Aris, M. S., & Al-Kayiem, H. H. (2013). Experimental Investigations on the Characteristics of Biomass and Coal-Biomass Fuel Briquettes. Advanced Materials Research, 683(13), 246-249.
[5]. Chinyere, D. C., Asoegwu, S. N., & Nwandikom, G. I. (2014). An Evaluation of Briquettes from Sawdust and Corn Starch Binder. The International Journal of Science & Technoledge, 2(7), 149-157.


Paper Type :: Research Paper
Title :: Road Safety Audit of Rural Ghat Road at Vikarabad District
Country :: India
Authors :: N. Naveen || S SanMithra
Page No. :: 21-26
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A Road Safety Audit (RSA) is the formal safety procedure of an existing Road by an independent, multidisciplinary team. This paper explores the hazards of the roads and the confusing factors of the drivers.The road-selected area is from Vikarabad to Kerelli Towns. The road length is of 10 Kilometers. Theroad connects Vikarabad – Tandurtowns of Telangana State. It is a busy road connecting the industrial, commercial areas, has a mixed traffic and Hilly terrain, which leading to accidents. The Audit had conducted following the guidelines of, IRC: 67-2012, IRC: 35-1997, IRC: SP: 88. Correction of Road signs, markings, message signs, hazard markers, traffic safety barriers, identification of Blackspots, delineators had done based on the requirements. This paper worked for Safe roads, Forgiving roads. In conclusion, we argue that significant measures need to take on Road Safety aspects to mitigate the accidents and ensure the safety to vehicular traffic..

Keywords: Blackspots, Forgiving roads, IRC: 67-2012, IRC: 35-1997, IRC: SP: 88,Road Safety Audit, Self-Explaining roads..

[1]. Self-Enforcing Roads: A Guidance Report, January 2018. U.S Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.
[2]. Practical Guide for Road Safety Auditors and Inspectors, PIARC. Automobile and Motorcycle Association of Serbia - Center for Motor Vehicles, Belgrade – 2018
[3]. N. Naveen, Dr. T. Ilango, Road Safety Audit Of Ananthagiri Hills Ghat Road At Vikarabad District in IJCIET (Scoups Indexed) Journal (ISSN: 0976-6316) - Volume 9, Issue 4, April 2018.
[4]. N. Naveen , Dinesh Kumar Yadav, Road Safety Audit of RBVRR TSPA Junction – Moinabad Town in IJCRT (UGC Approved) Journal (ISSN: 2320-2882) - IJCRTNCES001, in National Conference on Engineering, Science, Technology in Industrial Application and Significance of Free Open Source Softwares Organized by K G REDDY College of Engineering & Technology & IJCRT.ORG December 2017.
[5]. N. Naveen, Dr. T. Ilango, Dr. Abdhesh Kumar Sinha, Road Safety Audit of Delhi – Mathura Road in IJESI (UGC Approved) Journal (ISSN : 2319 – 6734) - Volume 6, Issue 9; September 2017..


Paper Type :: Research Paper
Title :: Assessment of Ganga water contamination at Haridwar: Studies on Some Physico-Chemical and Microbiological Characteristics
Country :: India
Authors :: Priyvrat Singh Chauhan || Nikunaj Bhardwaj
Page No. :: 27-37
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The present investigation has brought out the ground truth, how religious festivals, customs and rituals play a far reaching role to lead the pollution of water. The strength of water pollution of the river Ganga and other streams fluctuates seasonally. Due to further supply of water through heavy rainfall, the DO, BOD, COD, Hardness, Alkalinity, Total Nitrogen in water, Heavy Metals, Detergents, Velocity, Temperature and pHlevel slightly fluctuates during the monsoon. It becomes alarming during the festivals as huge number of pilgrims and tourists gather from different parts of the country and world. Present study concluded that there were minor differences in physico-chemical parameters of all the three sampling stations selected for their study. Research show that all the parameters which have been studied are still under the standard limits but some of them are very closer to them is an alarm for increasing pollution status. Due to regular dumping of ashes and bones of dead body, effluents of industries, hotels and sewage water of city should be treated before mixing in the river Ganga. Besides, this much consideration should be paid to control the pollution maintain the limits. The study not only comprises all types of threats of the area but also comprises the suggestions and recommendations concerning the management of natural hazards and combating the illegal human interference on entire environment..

Keywords: Ganga River, pollution, physico-chemical parameters, DO, BOD, COD, Hardness, Alkalinity, Total Nitrogen in water, Heavy Metals, Detergents, Velocity, Temperature, pH.

[1]. Abbasi, S. A.; Arya, D. S.; Hameed, A. S. and Abbasi, N. (1996) : Water quality of a typical river of Kerla. Punnurpuzha Poll.Res. 15(2) : 163–166.
[2]. Abdin, G. (1948 a) : Physical and Chemical investigation relating to algal growth in the river Nile . Cairo Bull. Inst. Egypt, 29 : 20–24.
[3]. Abida, Begum; Ramaiah, M.; HariKrishna; Irfanulla Khan and K. Veena, (2009) : Heavy Metal Pollution and Chemical profile of Cauvery River water. E. Journal of Chemistry 6(1) : 47– 52.
[4]. Afzal, S.; Ahmad, I.; Younas; Zahid, M. H.; Din , Khan , M.H.; Atique, Ijaz, Akram and Ali, K. (2000) : Study of water quality of Hudiara drain, India – Pakistan. EnvironmentInternational 26(1–2) : 87–96.
[5]. Agarwal, G. D. (1998) : Physico – Chemical aspect of ground water quality in Chikhli Town of Buldana. Distt. Poll. Res. 17(3) : 291–292..


Paper Type :: Research Paper
Title :: A New Class of Analytic and Multivalent Function Associated With a Fractional Calculus Operator
Country :: India
Authors :: I.B.Bapna || Mamta Sharma || Nidhi Jain
Page No. :: 38-42
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In this paper, we introduce a new class Wk(a,b,α,β) consists of multivalent function which is analytic in the open unit disk with negative coefficient defined with the help of Hohlov operator. Characterization property, distortion theorems and some other interesting results of this class are investigated.

Keywords: Distortion Theorem, Generalized hypergeometric Function, Hohlov Operator, Hadmard Product.

[1]. Atshan W. G. (2010), Application of fractional calculus operators for a new class of univalent functions with negative coefficients defined by Hohlov operator, Math. Slovaca 60 No. 1, 75–82.
[2]. Atshan W. G., Majeed A.H. and Jassim K.A. (2014), On a new class of univalent functions with application of fractional calculus operators Defined by Hohlov operator, Journal of Asian scientific research, 4(2):99-111.
[3]. Gottschalk J E and Maslen E N(1988), Reduction formulae for generalized hypergeometric functions of one variable, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 21 1983-1998. Printed In The UK.
[4]. Hohlov Y.E. (1989), Convolution operators preserving univalent functions, PLISKA 10, 87-92.
[5]. Mishra A. K.. and Panigrahi Trailokya(2011), Class-Mapping properties of the Hohlov operator, Bull. Korean Math. Soc. 48 No. 1, Pp. 51-65 ,DOI 10.4134/BKMS.2011.48.1.051..


Paper Type :: Research Paper
Title :: Mathcad: Teaching and Learning Tool for Biaxial Reinforced Column Design
Country :: Qatar
Authors :: Mohammed S. Al-Ansari || Muhammad S. Afzal
Page No. :: 42-52
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Mathcad is a sophisticated computation and presentation tool, which is versatile, easy to use, and accessible. It holds strong potential as a learning aid for education and training. This paper demonstrates the use of Mathcad to supplement and enhance traditional teaching and learning methods both inside and outside the classroom. The paper focuses on the topic of reinforced concrete biaxial column design. Interactive teaching and learning devices in reinforced concrete biaxial column deign produced using the presentation and programming features available in Mathcad. This paper also compares the results of the Mathcad for the biaxial column with the computer software "SP Column" and the results obtained from the Mathcad program are quite close to the ones obtained from the computer software.

Keywords: Biaxial Column Design, learning methods, Mathcad, SP Column.

[1]. PTC Mathcad 15,MathSoft Inc., Needham, Massachusetts, 02142 USA (2018).
[2]. M. S. Al-Ansari and Ahmed B. Senouci, "MATHCAD: Teaching and Learning Tool for ReinforcedConcrete Design", International journal of Engineering Education, Vol-15,No. 1, pp. 64-71, 1999.
[3]. M. S. Al‐Ansari, Ahmed B. Senouci, "Use of Mathcad as a teaching and learningtool for reinforced concrete design of footings", Computer Applications in Engineering Education,John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Volume -7, Issue-3, Pages 146-154, 1999.
[4]. M. S. Al-Ansari, "Teaching two-way ribbed slab analysis and design using the Mathcad program",World-Transactions on Engineering and Technology Education, UICEE,Volume-5, Issue- 3, Pages 457, 2006.
[5]. SP Column v5.10, "Design and Investigation of Reinforced Concrete Column Sections". 5420OldOrchard Rd Skokie, IL 60077, USA, 2016..


Paper Type :: Research Paper
Title :: Study of Microstructural Evolution and Mechanical Properties of SAE 1045 Commercial Steel Subjected to Tempering Heat Treatment in Different Cooling Means
Country :: Brazil
Authors :: Gabriel Gonçalves Pessoa de Castro || Leonardo Feliciano Maciel || Gustavo José da Silva Nunes Rezende || Juliana da Silva Martins Campos
Page No. :: 53-59
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The present study had as objective to study and evaluate the evolution of the microstructure and the mechanical properties of the SAE 1045 commercial steel, subjected to a tempering heat treatment at 850 ° C, using 3 different cooling media: air, water and mineral oil, with subsequent treatment of tempering at 300 ° C. Using hardness and optical microscopy as tools of analysis and data collection, it was possible to determine the evolution of the microstructure and the mechanical properties of the samples before and after the treatments, as well as to perform a systematic and comparative analysis between them. By means of the results obtained it can be concluded that the SAE 1045 steel does not present any alteration of its properties and microstructure when subjected to tempering using air as a cooling medium. However, in relation to the tempering using water and oil as cooling media, a severe microstructural alteration was observed, evolving completely to a microstructure formed by martensitic grains. A significant increase in the hardness of the material was also observed reaching a plateau of 400% hardness from the starting material soon after quenching and 340% after tempering..

Keywords: Quenching, tempering, SAE 1045 steel, cooling, hardness, microstructure..

[1]. CALISTER, W. D.; RETHWISCH, D. G., Ciência e Engenharia dos Materiais: Uma Introdução, 9a ed., São Paulo: LTC Editora, 2016, 912pg.
[2]. ABNT NBR NM 87:2000, Aço carbono e ligados para construção mecânica - Designação e composição química, 2000.
[3]. MACHADO, Izabel F. Tratamentos térmicos e de superfície. Prof. Escola Politécnica da Universidade de São Paulo. Depto. de Engenharia Mecatrônica e de Sistemas Mecânicos PMR, 2002.
[4]. DA SILVA, A. C. M., Tratamento térmico de têmpera no aço SAE 1040 em diferentes meios de resfriamento, Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso: Universidade Federal Fluminense, 2012.
[5]. BOYER, H. E.; CARY, P.R., Quenching and control of distortion, ASM International, 1988.


Paper Type :: Research Paper
Title :: A Study of Theorems Involving The Laplace transform And Aleph() -Function With Application
Country :: India
Authors :: Yashwant Singh
Page No. :: 60-63
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In this paper, the author establishes four interesting theorems exhibiting interconnections between images and originals of related functions in the Laplace transform. Further, we obtain five new and general integrals by the application of the theorems. Two known results are also given as a direct consequence of the third theorem. The importance of our findings lies in the fact that they involve the  -function which are very general in nature and are capable of yielding a large number of simpler and useful integrals merely by specializing the parameters in them.

Keywords: function, Laplace transform, Goldstein theorem. (2010 Mathematics subject classification: 33C60, 44A10).

[1]. Erdelyi, A. (1953, 1954): Higher Transcendental Functions, vol. I, II, McGraw-Hill, New York.
[2]. Gradshteyn, I.S. and Ryzhik, I.M. (1963): Tables of Integrals, Series and Products, Academic Press, NewYork.
[3]. Gupta, K.C., Jain, R. and Sharma, A. (2003): A study of unified finite integral transform with applications, J.Raj. Acad. Phy. Sci., 2(4), 269-282.
[4]. Jain, R. (1992): A study of multidimensional Laplace transform and its applications, Soochow J.of Math., 183-193.
[5]. Srivastava, H.M., Gupta, K.C. and Goyal, S.P. (1982): The H-function of One and Two Variables with Application, South Asian Publishers, New Delhi and Madras.
[6]. Sudland, N., Baumann, B. and Nonnenmacher, T.F.; Open problem: who knows about the Aleph( )- functions? Frac. Calc. Appl. Annl. 1(4),(1998), 401-402.