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Volume 8 ~ Issue 4 ~ Version 2 (April 2018)

 


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Application of Iot in Electrical Grid

Country

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India

Authors

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Gaurav Kant Shankhdhar || Atul Verma || V.K. Singh || M. Darbari || Varun Singh

Page No.

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01-03

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The field of Internet of Things has grown widely in nearly all areas of technologies most recent be Organization MAS, Mobiles and Electrical where its indulgence is most novel. Work has already been started where sensors, smart meters and actuators, grids and this is most economically done through the use of solar cells that can even be modified by the usage of multi-lens distance focusing system, which is a future research scope of this paper. The authors here propose the use of wireless signals to control, supply, distribute, and manage and prapogate the electric current on demand by utilizing zonal electric grids powered by solar cells.

 

Keywords: IOT; Electrical; Grid, Solar Cells; magnification.

[1] Verma, Atul & Kant Shankhdhar, Gaurav & Darbari, Manuj. (2017). Verified Message Exchange in Providing Security for Cloud Computing in Heterogeneous and Dynamic Environment. International Journal of Applied Information Systems. 11. 15-18. 10.5120/ijais2017451648.
[2] Dhanda, Namrata, Manuj Darbari, and Neelu J. Ahuja. (2012), Development of Multi Agent Activity Theory e-Learning(MATeL) Framework focusing on Indian Scenario, International Review on Computers and Software 7.4 (2012).
[3] Shankhdhar G.K. and Darbari M. Integrating COCOMO II Model in O-MaSE Methodology for Estimating Effort in Building Heterogeneous and Dynamic Multi-Agent Systems, Science & Engineering Research Support soCiety, International Journal of Software Engineering and Its Applications (pp. 29-40).
[4] Shankhdhar, G.K., Darbari, M., Building Custom, Adaptive and Heterogeneous Multi-Agent Systems for Semantic Information Retrieval Using Organizational-Multi-Agent Systems Engineering, O-MaSE, IEEE Explore, ISBN: 978-1-5090-3480-2

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Design and Implementation of an Off-Grid Solar Tracker Control System using Proteus Version 8.1

Country

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Nigeria

Authors

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Richard Eberechi Echendu || Hachimenum Nyebuchi Amadi

Page No.

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04-12

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Most standalone Solar Photovoltaic (PV) systems in Nigeria are of the fixed standalone type and are fixed either on the roof of a building, at the top of an iron pole or other unmovable positions and so, do not produce required maximum energy conversion due to the varying movement of the sun in the sky. Recent studies have shown that the amount of electric power generated by PV arrays varies continuously with weather conditions. Even under clear weather conditions, the position of the sun changes during the day, which in the case of fixed installed solar panels leads to changes in the effective surface of the solar panels towards the sun and a decreased output power...........

 

Keywords: Energy Efficiency, Solar Energy, Solar PV Systems, Off-Grid PV Systems, Renewable Energy

[1] Rizk, J. and Chaiko, Y. (2008). Solar tracking system: More efficient use of solar panels. Proceedings of World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, 2-3
[2] Tudorache, T and Kreindler, L (2010). Design of a solar tracker system for PV power plants. ActaPolytechnicaHungarica, 7 (1), 23- 39
[3] Siew, H. W. (2008). "Solar Tracker." ENG499 Capstone Project, SIM University, Singapore
[4] Gadewadikar J., (1997). "Microprocessor Based Solar Tracking System Using Stepper Motor, "Technical Report, S G S Institute of Technology and Science, Indore
[5] Tudorache, T., Oancea, C. D. and Kreindler, L. (2012). Performance evaluation of a solar tracking PV panel. U.P.B. Science Bull, Series C, 74 (1)

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Evaluation of Sorption Behavior of Heavy Metals by Contaminated Soil near a Municipal Waste Dumpsite

Country

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India

Authors

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G Venkata Ramaiah || S. Krishnaiah || Kotresha.K || P. V. Sivapullaiah

Page No.

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13-17

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In this study an attempt has been made to understand the sorption behavior of Nickel and Lead ions by contaminated soil amended with different proportions of bentonite and 10% of fly ash with a perspective of using them as barrier materials. Batch equilibrium tests have been carried out at different conditions to understand the adsorption capacities of Mavallipura dump site soil with bentonite and Fly ash mixtures. Two heavy metals lead and nickel have been used as contaminants; it has been observed that the addition of additives has improved their retention capacity under different conditions like varying dilution ratio, different initial concentration and at different pH's. bentonite was better additives to retain lead than flyash. The retention was of the order 6% bentonite >10%fly ash> 4%bentonite >2%bentonite > soil alone, for brown soilFlyash was found to be a better material to retain nickel than bentonite; the reason being flyash contains Al and Fe which act as good adsorbents for nickel

 

Keywords: Adsorption, Heavy metal, Containment, Batch adsorption, Contaminated soil, Fly ash, Bentonite

[1] O. E. A. Salam, N. A. Reiad, and M. M. ElShafei, "A study of the removal characteristics of heavy metals from wastewater by low-cost adsorbents," Journal of Advanced Research vol. 2, pp. 297-303, 2011.
[2] S. TRIANTAFYLLOU, E. CHRISTODOULOU, and P. NEou-SYNGOUNA, "Removal of nickel and cobalt from aqueous solutions by Na-activated bentonite," Clays and Clay Minerals,, vol. 47, p. 567~72, 1999.
[3] N. Boujelben, J. Bouzid, and Z. Elouear, "Adsorption of nickel and copper onto natural iron oxide-coated sand from aqueous solutions: Study in single and binary systems," Journal of Hazardous Materials vol. 163 pp. 376–382, 2009.
[4] J. Goel, K. Kadirvelu, C. Rajagopal, and V. K. Garg, "Removal of lead(II) by adsorption using treated granular activated carbon: Batch and column studies," Journal of Hazardous Materials vol. B125, pp. 211–220, 2005.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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A Comprehensive Review on Question Answering Systems

Country

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India

Authors

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Anitha Mary M O Chacko

Page No.

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18-21

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Question Answering (QA) is one of the most challenging tasks in the domain of Natural Language Processing and Information Retrieval. A Question answering systems (QASs) attempts to generate concise answers to user's questions asked in natural languages. Early QASs were developed for restricted domains and have limited capabilities. Current QASs focus on open domain QA which has no domain restrictions, and can almost all types of questions. This survey classifies QAs on the basis of question types and focuses on the techniques used for extracting answers from each type which can aid future researchers.

 

Keywords: .......

[1]. B.F. Green, A.K. Wolf, C. Chomsky, and K. Laughery ,Baseball: An automatic question answerer, In Proceedings Western Computing Conference, 1961.
[2]. Woods W. , Progress in natural language understanding an application to lunar geology, American Federation of Information Processing Societies (AFIPS) Conference Proceedings,1973.
[3]. Androutsopoulos, I., Ritchie, G.D., Thanisch, P., 1993. MASQUE/SQL – an efficient and portable natural language query interface for relational databases. In: Proc. of the 6th International Conference on Industrial and Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems. Gordon and Breach Publisher Inc., Edinburgh, pp. 327–330.
[4]. Riloff, E., Thelen, M., 2000. A rule-based question answering system for reading comprehension tests. In: ANLP/NAACL Workshop on Reading Comprehension Tests as Evaluation for Computer-Based Language Understanding Systems, vol. 6, pp. 13–19.
[5]. Dragomir Radev, Weiguo Fan, Hong Qi, Harris Wu, Amardeep Grewal, " Probabilistic Question Answering on the Web",Proceedings of the 11th international conference on World Wide Web, ACM 2002

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Study of Soil Quality from Aprupa watershed basin, Sangola Taluka, Solapur District, Maharashtra,India

Country

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India

Authors

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Karim Mujawar || Abhay Birajdar || Abhishek Gadade || Ravi Kshtri || Sham Pawar || Suhas Shingade || Suryakant Patil || P L Unale

Page No.

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22-28

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With the present population of India, there is an increasing demand for food, fiber and fuel, resulting in tremendous pressure on our finite land resources, especially soil and water. India is blessed with monsoon for rains and that we can do little to alter the nature's gift. On the other side, the soils that support our food productivity have to be managed and used based on their characteristics and extent of distribution, constraints and potentials. The National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning (NBSS&LUP) with various central and state agricultural agencies had initiated soil resource mapping of various states during the last decade of 20th century. The goals of such work were many............

 

Keywords: Watershed, Trace element, Clayey and loamy soils, salinity and alkalinity, GIS

[1]. Hem J.D., 1970 in Levinson A.A., Mecammon R.B. and Hitchon B., 1974, Introduction to exploration Geochemistry, Applied Publishing Ltd., 95 p.
[2]. Kabata Pendias A and Pendias H., 1984: Trace elements in soils and plants (2nd Ed) CRC Press Inc., Boca Raton, Florida, 1-3.5 pp.
[3]. Kaplay and Patode., 2004: Groundwater pollution due to industrial effluents of Tuppa,New Nanded, Maharashtra, Indian Environmental Geol. Jour.Vol. 46.,871-88
[4]. Kelly, W. P.1951:Alkali soils – Their formation properties and Reclamation ,Reinold publ.corp, New York.
[5]. Krauskopf. K.B., 1967: Introduction to Geochemistry, McGraw Hill, New York, 721 p.

 

Paper Type

::

Research Paper

Title

::

The Use of Waste Glass Cullet (WGC) and Waste Tyre Crumb (WTC) As Fine Aggregate in Concrete Production for Rigid Pavement

Country

::

Nigeria

Authors

::

Olutaiwo, A.O. || Akinwale, Mayowa B. || Ezegbunem, Ikechukwu I

Page No.

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29-36

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This paper reports the findings of using Waste Glass Cullet (WGC) and Waste Tyre Crumbs (WTC) as partial replacement of fine sand in concrete for rigid pavement construction. The performance of WGC and WTC in concrete were investigated by the following laboratory tests: slump, compressive strength (at 7, 28, 56 and 90 days curing), and flexural strength (at 7 and 28 days curing). The parameters varied in this study were the Waste Glass Cullet at 10% and 20% replacements of fine sand and Waste Tyre Crumbs at 5%, 10%, 20% and 30% replacement. The concrete design mix ratio adopted was 1:0.8:2.4 with water-cement ratio of 0.35. The test results obtained revealed that concrete containing Waste Glass Cullet (WGC) and Waste Tyre Crumbs..........

 

Keywords: Alkali-Silica Reaction, Compressive Strength, Flexural Strength, Waste Glass Cullet, Waste Tyre Crumb.

[1] Roodman, David Malin and Lenssen, Nicholas A building revolution: how ecology and health concerns are transforming construction. Worldwatch Institute, 1995.
[2] Iriruaga E.T., Solid waste management in Nigeria, D-Waste. Tech Paper, pp 2. 2012.

[3] Aaron Lim, The use of waste glass as a partial substitution for fine aggregate in concrete design. Charles Darwin University, 2014.
[4] Swamy, R.N. The alkali-silica reaction in concrete (Taylor and Francis, USA, 2nd edition p.335. 2003).
[5] Flores-Medina, D. Medina, N.F. and Hernández-Olivares, F. Static mechanical properties of waste rests of recycled rubber and high quality recycled rubber from crumbed tires used as aggregate in dry consistency concretes. Mater. Struct. 47, 2014, pp 185–1193.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Design of Omni directional Single Band Bent F-Shaped Micro-Strip Antenna for Wireless Applications

Country

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India

Authors

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Shierlly Vinxi T || Rosy S || Ishwar Prathap A || Emmanuel A

Page No.

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37-43

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The design of the antenna is a bent F-shaped structure with single band. It has minimal return loss, better gain and efficiency. This antenna has a better gain and return loss at 7.568 GHz. The gain of the antenna is 3.298 dB at 7.568 GHz. It is a narrow band antenna with return loss of -19 dB. The radiation characteristics of the antenna is Omni-directional. This F-shaped structured antenna has an exact impedance matching 50.82 ohm. The F-shaped structured antenna represents antenna with two different arm length. This antenna is designed using FR4 dielectric substrate with permittivity 4.4.The thickness of the substrate is 0.8 mm. The antenna is simulated using CST software.

 

Keywords: F shaped antenna, FR4 material, c band, dual band, micro-strip patch.

[1] Constantine A. Balanis (1982), 'Antenna Theory analysis and design' (2nd edition)
[2] J.Nourinia, P.Rezai, A.valizade and B.mohammadi (2015), 'Design of an omnidirectional triple band bent-fork shaped microstrip monopole antenna for multiband applications', (ICEE), IEEE, CA, pp.546-549.
[3] Ling Xu, Joshua le-Wei Li (2012), 'A dual band microstrip antenna for wearable application', (ISAPE2012), IEEE, CA, pp.109-112.
[4] R. Srividhya, S.Srinivasan (2016), 'A compact multiband partially reflective surface antenna for XBAND and WLAN applications', (ICDCS), IEEE, CA, pp.23-27.
[5] Dr.R.B.Waterhouse(2003), 'Microstrip Patch Antennas: a designer's guide, RMIT University

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

::

An Efficient Algorithm for Cognitive Radio Network

Country

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India

Authors

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Mr. C. Thiagarajan || S. Diviya || P. Mouunica || M. Suganthi

Page No.

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44-52

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We consider a cluster-based collaborative spectrum sensing scheme in energy harvesting cognitive wireless communication network, where cognitive nodes (CNs) are clustered based on their received power levels for enhancing sensing performance. A Cognitive Radio network is a set of base stations which make opportunistic unlicensed spectrum access to transmit data to their subscribers. By sensing and adapting to the environment, CR is able to fill in spectrum holes and this maximizing the spectrum utilization. This motivates our objective of maximizing the throughput of a cognitive radio network while maintaining performance of coexistent primary users. In order for the interference level to be minimal the SU must be allocated with an appropriate spectrum band, which causes less interference to the system. Hence both power control and spectrum allocation is necessary for the system to perform better.

 

Keywords: Cognitive radio,cluster, cognitive nodes, spectrum sensing, MIMO.

[1] M. L. Ku, W. Li, Y. Chen and K.J. Ray Liu, "Advances in Energy harvesting communications: Past, Present, and Future Challenges," IEEECommun. Surveys Tutorials.,vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 1384-1412, Jun. 2016.

[2] S. Park, H. Kim, and D. Hong, "Cognitive Radio Networks with Energy Harvesting," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun.,vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 1386-1397, Mar. 2013. [3] A. Minasian, S. ShahbazPanahi and R. S. Adve, "Energy Harvesting Cooperative Communication Systems," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 13, no. 11, pp.6118-6131, Nov. 2014.

[4] A. Bhowmick, S. D. Roy and S. Kundu, "Throughput of a Cognitive Radio Network with Energy-Harvesting Based on Primary User Signal," IEEE Wireless Commun.Lett, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 136-139, Apr. 2016.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Retime Based Image Enhancement for Better Visual Effects

Country

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India

Authors

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Sayara S. Shikalgar || S.S. Tamboli

Page No.

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53-58

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Process of improving quality of image to give better visual appearance is called Image enhancement. Modified Lo Norm Based Algorithm which preserves sharp edges better than existing Lo Norm Algorithms . But the proposed algorithm gives better visual results than the modified lo norm. Human visual perception method is used in this enhancement technique. The input color image is transformed into HVS component. And from that only V component is enhanced. Robust envelope is introduced to reduce halo artifacts. This paper includes comparative study of modified lo norm and proposed Retinex with Robust Recursive Envelope algorithm. Existing image enhancement techniques have some drawbacks. Experimental result show that proposed algorithm reduces distortion and improves the visual quality of image.

 

Keywords: ................

[1] [1] F. Kou, W. Chen, Z. Li, C. Wen,, "Content Adaptive Image Detail Enhancement,"IEEE Signal Process. Lett., vol. 22, no.2, February 2015.
[2] L. Xu, C. Lu, Y. Xu, and J. Jia, "Image smoothing via gradient minimization," ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 30, no. 6,2011.
[3] E. W. Land and J. J. McCann, "Lightness and retinex theory," J. Optical Society of America, vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 1–11, January1971.
[4] D. J. Jobson, Z. Rahman, and G. A. Woodell, "Properties and performance of a center/surround retinex," IEEE Trans. ImageProcessing, vol.6, no. 3, pp. 451–462, March 1997
[5] D. J. Jobson, Z. Rahman, and G. A. Woodell, "A multiscaleretinex for bridging the gap between color images and the human observation of scenes," IEEE Trans. Image Processing, vol. 6, no. 7, pp. 965–976, July 1997.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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The Design and Realization of PKE System Based On ARM9

Country

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China

Authors

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Tong-feiTu || Su-Yun Luo

Page No.

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59-65

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In order to solve the problem that the PKE(passive keyless enter)with a fixed-frequency used in mid-and-low end cars was interfered and broken easily, which led to the damage of anti-theft system and even the loss of cars, and in order to ensure the PKE can be used long and be expanded and upgraded in the future, a new, low power consumption and high reliability PKE was designed with the S3C2410 microprocessor which is based on ARM9 and the RF transceiver chip nRF905 which has the function of frequency modulation. As frequency-hopping communication technology was used in the system, the information would not be disturbed or blocked in the communication process, which increased the reliability of the system. With reasonable power-management module, the system power consumption was greatly reduced. Test shows that the new PKE can well meet the practical application.

 

Keywords: PKE;S3C2410;nRF905;frequency-hopping communication technology; low powerconsumption

[1]. CHANG Li-na, LUO Xiao-chuan. The PKE(passivekeyless entry) demo based on uPD780503 anduPD780881[J]. Global Electonics China, 2009(7):40-43.
[2]. YANG Bo. The detailed analysis of PKE used in Shang-hai GM cars[J]. Auto Maintenance,2010(5):25-27.
[3]. XU Ying-hui, MA Zhong-mei,WANGLei,et al. ARM9embedded system design— based on S3C2410 and Linux(2th ed)[M]. Beijing: Beijing University of Aeronauticsand Astronautics Press,2010:64-69.
[4]. GAO Zhang-fei, ZHU Shan-an. Multipoint wirelesscommunication module on MSP430 and nRF905[ J].Chinese Journal of Electron Devices,2006,29(1):264-267.
[5]. YANG Jian. Development and implementation of wire-less RF data acquisition system based on the nRF905[D].Changsha: Central South University, Departmentof Computer Science and Engineering, 2007: 46-47.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Smart Antenna of Aperiodic Array in Mobile Network

Country

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India

Authors

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Pooja Raj || Anupama Senapati || Jibendu Sekhar Roy

Page No.

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66-70

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Aperiodic or non-uniform antenna arrays are used for highly directive beam generation with reduced side lobe levels. In this paper, aperiodic antenna array, with non-uniform inter-element spacing, is used for beamforming of smart antenna. Sample matrix algorithm (SMI) algorithm is used for adaptive beamforming of smart antenna. Reduced side lobe level (SLL) of antenna radiation beam causes less interference for other users in mobile network. Aperiodic array produces lower side lobe level compared to uniform array while producing main beam and null towards the desired directions. Performance of adaptive beamforming at different angles using aperiodic array are compared with the performance of smart antenna of periodic array. Maximum side lobe level reduction of 3 dB is achieved using smart antenna of aperiodic array compared to periodic array.

 

Keywords: Smart antenna, aperiodic antenna array, SMI algorithm, side lobe level

[1]. Godara LC. Application of antenna arrays to mobile communications, part II: beam-forming and direction-of-arrival considerations. Proc. IEEE. 1997; 85(8): 119-1245.
[2]. Balanis CA, Bellofiore, S. Smart antenna system for mobile communication network. Part-1: overview and antenna design. IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine. 2002; 44(3): 145-154.
[3]. Sarkar TK, Wicks MC, Salazar-Palma M. Smart Antenna. Wiley-IEEE Press. 2003.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Enhancing Efficiency of the Agile Software by Using Crowdsourcing

Country

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India

Authors

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Himanshu Pandey || Dr. Santosh Kumar || Dr. V.K Singh

Page No.

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71-77

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The Agile Methodology has sprouted as a solid swap for Rapid Application Development (RAD) software programming building techniques. As the emphases increment the many-sided quality associated with the Daily Scrum additionally increments with posturing troubles in the following emphasis. This builds the asset usage up to the degree that execution starts to flounder at a wild pace. The creators have endeavored to devise a system that guides the nimble procedure with crowdsourcing. The productivity of the Agile Process has been significantly improved as the necessities of the Agile procedure are currently disseminated on crowdsourced organize through which the assets required like CPU time, memory, battery or power are provided by almost ceaseless group specialists.

 

Keywords: Agile, Crowdsourcing, Worker, Network, Distributed, Scrum.

[1]. Begel, A., Herbsleb, J.D. and Storey, M.-A. 2012. The Future of Collaborative Software Development. Proc. Computer Supported Cooperative Work.
[2]. Musson, R., Richards, J., Fisher, D., Bird, C., Bussone, B. and Ganguly, S. 2013. Leveraging the crowd: how 48,000 users helped improve Lync performance, IEEE Softw., 30, 4.
[3]. Dolstra, E., Vliegendhart, R. and Pouwelse, J. 2013. Crowdsourcing gui tests. 6th International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation.
[4]. Monika Skaržauskaitė, "The application of crowdsourcing in educational activities", ISSN 2029-7564 (online) SOCIALINĖS TECHNOLOGIJOS SOCIAL TECHNOLOGIES 2012, 2(1), p. 67–76.
[5]. Stolee, K.T. and Elbaum, S. 2010. Exploring the use of crowdsourcing to support empirical studies in software engineering. ESEM.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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An Experimental Study On Strength Characteristics Of Ternary Blended Concrete Using Metakaolin , Groundnut Shell Ash And Recycled Coarse Aggregate

Country

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India

Authors

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Akshay D. Ladani || Pradeepkumar Pandey

Page No.

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78-87

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The implementation of construction ,industrial and agricultural wastes produced by industrial processes has been the subject of waste reduction research for economical aspects , environmental safety and technical sollutions. Presently there is a shortage of concrete materials, so we are in need to come up with The alternative materials to concrete. In this situation we should utilize the larger amount of waste products which is available. For example - construction & demolition waste (recycled Aggregates) agriculture wastages (groundnut shells) , plastic waste etc. In This experimental study,cement was replaced by 0%,5%.10%,15% percentage with (G.S.A.)groundnut shell ash and constant percentage of Metakaolin (15%) by weight. Results show that use of 5% G.S.A. and 15% metakaolin gives as optimum result so 20% use of cement can be reduced.............

 

Keywords: Groundnut shell ash , Recycled Coarse Aggregates , Metakaolin, Concrete Mix Design.

[1]. Rahul M Jadhav, Pradip D Jadhao And Shantanu G Pande "A study on behavior of metakaolin base recycled aggregate concrete"
[2]. " Efficiency of metakaolin in steam cured high strength concrete " PeiliangShen , Linnu Lu , Wei Chen , Fazhou Wang , Shuguang Hu .Construction and Building Materials 152 (2017) 357–366 .
[3]. " cracking potential due to restraint stresses from incorporating metakaolin in concrete ".Andrew Robert Williams ,University of South Florida .
[4]. " effect of metakaolin on the strength properties of concrete " Er. Mohit* Er. RavinderKumar , RPIIT, Karnal .
[5]. "Performance Of Concrete Properties By Groundnut Shell Ash As A Partial Replacement Of Cement With Sisal Fiber". H.HadilArshad and R.Dineshkumar ,Chendhuran College of Engineering and Technolog, Pudukkotai-Dt, South India

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Synthesis and Characterization of Neodymium Doped Nickel Oxide Nanoparticles

Country

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India

Authors

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Dr Jyotsna Chauhan || Umesh Chaubey

Page No.

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88-93

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Nd doped NiO nonmaterial have been synthesized successfully by simple solzel method using ethanol glycol(eg) as capping agent. The nano particle have been characterized by using a combination of experimental technique likes X-ray diffraction(XRD), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), photoluminances spectroscopy (PL), including UV visible absorption. The effect of Nd doped NiO surface morphology composition structural and optical properties, an empirical relation between the optical band gape given from absorption measurement and the particle and grain size given from XRD measurements has been developed and compared to the similar relation found the literature..............

 

Keywords: ............

[1]. P. Duran, J. Tartaj, C. Moure, J. Am. Ceram. Soc., Vol. 86 (8), 2003, pp. 1326–1329.
[2]. J. Wang, L. Gao, J. Am. Ceram. Soc., Vol. 88 (6), 2005, pp. 1637–1639.
[3]. M. Mazaheri, A.M. Zahedi, M.M. Hejazi, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, Vol. 492, 2008, pp. 261–267.
[4]. J. Bahadur, D. Sen., S. Mazumder, S. Ramanathan, J. Sol. Sta. Chem., Vol. 181, 2008, pp.
[5]. 1227–1235.
[6]. H. Sato, T. Minami, S. Takata, T. Yamada, Thin Solid Films, Vol. 236, 1993, pp. 27.