Paper Type :: Research Paper
Title :: Protocol for Evaluating Sand Dam Water Quality in Semi-Arid Areas: A Case Study of Makueni County
Country :: Kenya
Authors :: D. Ndunge || D.O. Mbuge || C.T. Omuto
Page No. :: 01-14
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Sand dams have been recommended in many places as a feasible technology for the ASAL areas due to their ability to store water with minimal evaporation, recharge underground water and raise water table, among others. In Kenya, adoption of sand dam technology has been steadily increasing. Water from the sand dams is used for drinking, domestic uses, livestock watering, and for irrigation. Water quality is paramount for drinking water. However, much emphasis is being done on the sand dam technical aspects namely hydrologic measurement and analysis, and determination of the quantity of water that will be harvested with less or no concern on the water quality and how the water quality can be affected. The focus of this study therefore was to determine water quality parameters for evaluating potability of water from sand dams............

Keywords: Sand dams, Water Quality, Protocol, Potability, Minimum Data Set, Makueni County.

[1]. Merel Hoogmoed (2006) Analyses of Impacts of a Sand Storage Dam on Groundwater Flow and Storage; Groundwater Flow Modelling in Kitui District, Kenya. Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, VU University, Amsterdam
[2]. RAIN (2011) A Practical Guide to Sand Dam Implementation, Rain Foundation. RAIN: Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
[3]. ERHA and RAIN Foundation (2009) Manual on Sand Dams in Ethiopia: A practical approach on sand dam site selection, design and construction, A tool for combining sand dams with other rainwater harvesting structures.
[4]. Maddrell S and Neal I (2013) Building Sand Dams: A Practical Guide. Excellent Development: London.
[5]. Quinn R., Manon D., Parker A., Orlando A. and Cairncross S. (2018) An Assessment of the Microbiological Water Quality of Sand Dams in Southeastern Kenya. Water 2018, 10(6), 708; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10060708.


Paper Type :: Research Paper
Title :: Performance Evaluation of High Speed Multipliers
Country :: India
Authors :: Rmesh Babu Badite || P D S S S Siva Durga || Sunitha Kalluri
Page No. :: 15-19
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Day to day life technology was gradually increased portable devises were played significant role in the digital market. Most of digital circuits required less area, speed and power consumption .In multipliers required clock signals because the multipliers are complex circuits, to overcome this drawback the proposed structure satisfying the performance of circuit. In this paper two different multipliers are designed those are modified Wallace multiplier and array multiplier with the combination of truncated multiplier. The comparison is carried out by using EDA tool i.e.to developed this paper in Xilinx ISE 12.3 design suit for synthesis and simulation.

Keywords: Truncated multiplier, Array multiplier, Modified Wallace multiplier, Multiplexer.

[1]. Shen-Fu Hsiao, Jun-Hong Zhang Jian, and Ming-Chih Chen,‖ Low-Cost FIR Filter Designs Based on Faithfully Rounded Truncated Multiple Constant Multiplication/Accumulation‖ ieee transactions on circuits and systems—ii: express briefs, vol. 60, no. 5, may 2013.
[2]. M. M. Peiro, E. I. Boemo, and L. Wanhammar, ―Design of high-speed multiplierless filters using a nonrecursive signed common subexpression algorithm,‖ IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II, Analog Digit. Signal Process, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 196–203, Mar. 2002.
[3]. C.-H. Chang, J. Chen, and A. P. Vinod, ―Information theoretic approach to complexity reduction of FIR filter design,‖ IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I, Reg. Papers, vol. 55, no. 8, pp. 2310–2321, Sep. 2008.
[4]. F. Xu, C. H. Chang, and C. C. Jong, ―Contention resolution—A new approach to versatile sub expressions sharing in multiple constant multiplications, ‖IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I, Reg. Papers, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 559–571, Mar. 2008.
[5]. F. Xu, C. H. Chang, and C. C. Jong, ―Contention resolution algorithms for common sub expression elimination in digital filter design,‖ IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II, Exp. Briefs, vol. 52, no. 10, pp. 695–700, Oct. 2005.


Paper Type :: Research Paper
Title :: Optimal Power Flow Solution Using Crow Search Algorithm
Country :: India
Authors :: Sreekakulam Naresh || Prof. M. Damodar Reddy || Y V Krishna Reddy
Page No. :: 20-26
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This paper describes Crow Search Algorithm (CSA), inspired by the intelligent behaviour of crows to solve Optimal Power Flow (OPF) problem. CSA is a population-based method; works on behaviour of crows how to retrieve their reserve food in secrete places when the food is needed. OPF is the most familiar problem in power system optimization. The OPF problem formulation includes various constraints like generator, active power; reactive power limits and also valve point loading. The proposed method developed on the IEEE 14-bus, 30-bus and 26-bus power systems for optimize the cost of generation, emission and active power loss in single objective optimization space. The optimal results are compared to those informed in the literature. The results prove that the CSA has faster convergence and lesser cost as compared with other OPF solution methods.

Keywords: Crow Search Algorithm, Optimal Power Flow, Emission, Active power loss, Valve-point loading.

[1]. Harprit kaur and Y.S Brar, "Optimal Power Flow Using Power World Simulator" 2010 IEEE Electrical Power & Energy Conference
[2]. Xiaojiao Tong and Mugang Lin, "Semismooth Newton-Type Algorithms for Solving Optimal Power Flow Problems" 2005 IEEE/PES Transmission and Distribution Conference & Exhibition: Asia and Pacific Dalian, China
[3]. L L Lai and J T M a, "Power Flow Control In Facts Using Evolutionary Programming", 0-7803-2759-4/95/$4.00 01995 IEEE
[4]. R.Narmatha Banu and D.Devaraj, "Optimal Power Flow for Steady state security enhancement using Genetic Algorithm with FACTS devices", 2008 IEEE Region 10 Colloquium and the Third ICIIS, Kharagpur, INDIA December 8-10


Paper Type :: Research Paper
Title :: Strengthening of Black Cotton Soils by Using Polypropylene as Fiber Reinforcement
Country :: India
Authors :: Ravi Kumar GARRE || Patlolla Shashidhar Reddy
Page No. :: 27-32
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Black cotton soils are weak soils, which swells and shrinks excessively with change of water content. The present study is mainly done to stabilize the black cotton soil by using polypropylene as fiber reinforcement. This study is mainly carried out to assess the effects of polypropylene fibers on the shear strength parameters of black cotton soil. For this, I carried out laboratory tests like, direct shear test, unconfined compression test on the collected samples of black cotton soil. The results obtained of these tests were compared for the different reinforcement percentages of 0%, 0.05%, 0.15% and 0.25% of soil samples. But finally, the tests shown positive results and the engineering properties of the soil have been improved.

Keywords: Angle of internal friction, black cotton soil, cohesion, direct shear test, fiber reinforcement, Polypropylene, shrinkage and swelling, Unconfined compression test.

[1] S. A. Naeini and S.M. Sadjadi, (2008), "Effect of Waste Polymer Materials on Shear Strength of Unsaturated Clays", EJGE Journal, Vol 13, Bid, (1-12).
[2] Yetimoglu. T, Inanir. M, Inanir O. E., 2005, A study of bearing capacity of randomly distributed fiber-reinforced sand fills overlying soft clay. Geotextiles and Geomembranes 23 (2), 174-183.
[3] Chaosheg Tag, Bin Shi, Wei Gao, Fengju Chen, Yi Cai, 2006, Strength and Mechanical Behavior of short propylene fiber reinforced and cement stabilized clayey soil. Geotextiles and Geomembranes 25 (2007) 194-202.
[4] Understanding the Basics of Soil Stabilization: An Over View of Materials and Techniques (online). Available at: http://www.cat.com
[5] Punmia B.C. 2007, "Soil Mechanics and Foundations", Lakshmi Publications.


Paper Type :: Research Paper
Title :: Comparison of Continuous Probability Distribution and Robust Mean in WSN Data Aggregation
Country :: India
Authors :: M.Lakshmi || Dr P.Velmani || Dr P.Arockia Jansi Rani
Page No. :: 33-37
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The Environment Pollution Index reveals a tension between two fundamental dimensions of sustainable development: environmental health, which rises with economic growth and prosperity, and ecosystem vitality, which comes under strain from industrialization and urbanization. Good governance emerges as the critical factor required balancing these distinct dimensions of sustainability. Air quality remains the leading environmental threat to public health. In 2016 the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation estimated that diseases related to airborne pollutants contributed to two-thirds of all life-years lost to environmentally related deaths and disabilities...............

Keywords: Continuous Probability Distribution Methods, Robust mean, WSN data aggregation.

[1]. https://stattrek.com/probability-distributions/discrete-continuous.aspx?tutorial=prob
[2]. https://sites.nicholas.duke.edu/statsreview/continuous-probability-distributions/.
[3]. https://smallbusiness.chron.com/role-probability-distribution-business-management-26268.html.
[4]. Families of distributions arising from the quantile of generalized lambda distribution" Mahmoud Aldeni Email authorView ORCID ID profile, Carl Lee and Felix Famoye Journal of Statistical Distributions and Applications20174:25
[5]. Compounding of distributions: a survey and new generalized classes Muhammad H Tahir Email authorView ORCID ID profile and Gauss M. Cordeiro Journal of Statistical Distributions and Applications20163:13


Paper Type :: Research Paper
Title :: Study of Temperature variation on Dopingless SOI
Country :: India
Authors :: Ashish Raturi
Page No. :: 38-43
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In this paper, we study the impact of temperature on various performance parameters of n-type dopingless Silicon on Insulator transistor (DL-SOI). On-off current ratio (Ion/Ioff) decreases with increase in temperature. Simulation study shows that subthreshold swing (SS), drain induced barrier lowering (DIBL) and trans-conductance are degraded with increasing temperature. A comparative study is also performed between junctionless SOI transistor (JL-SOI) and DL-SOI with respect to temperature. Performance parameters such as SS, DIBL, Ion/Ioff are degraded in both the devices with increases temperature, but DL-SOI shows better performance in terms of performance parameter than JL-SOI with increasing temperature. DL-SOI also shows lower self-heating in comparison to JL-SOI device with drain voltage.

Keywords: Dopingless, Drain Induced Barrier Lowering, Junctionless, Silicon On Insulator, Subthreshold Slope, Self-Heating.

[1] C. Sahu and J. Singh, "Charge-plasma based process variation immune junctionless transistor," IEEE Electron Device Lett., vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 411–413, Mar. 2014
[2] C. Sahu, A. Ganguly, and J. Singh, "Design and performance projection of symmetric bipolar charge-plasma transistor on SOI," Electron. Lett, vol. 50, no. 20, pp. 1461–1463, Sep. 2014.
[3] J. P. Colinge, C. W. Lee, A. Afzalian, N. D. Akhavan, R. Yan, I. Ferain, P. Razavi, B. O'Neill, A. Blake, M. White, A. M. Kelleher, B. McCarthy, and R. Murphy, "Nanowire transistors without junctions," Nat. Nanotechnol., vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 225–229, Mar. 2010.
[4] R. Rao, N. Das Gupta, and A. Das Gupta, "Study of random dopant fluctuation effects in FD-SOI MOSFET using analytical threshold voltage model," IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Rel., vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 247–253, Jun. 2010. [5] J. P. Colinge, A. Kranti, R. Yan, C. W. Lee, I. Ferain, R. Yu, N. Dehdashti Akhavan, P. Razavi,"Junctionless Nanowire Transistor (JNT): Properties and design guidelines," Solid-State Electronics, Volumes 65–66, November–December 2011, Pages 33-37.


Paper Type :: Research Paper
Title :: Prediction of CBR Characteristics of Fine-Grained Red Soils
Country :: India
Authors :: Ch. Vijaya Kumar || P.V.V. Satyanarayana || K.Preetham || B.Satyanarayana
Page No. :: 44-46
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Red soils of fine grained nature are prominent for foundation layers in the construction of civil engineering Structures especially sub-grades of flexible and rigid pavements. Strength and deformations are the main parameters to explain durability of the pavements. CBR is the parameter to explain strength and sub-grade which decides the total thickness of the pavement. In the present investigation grain size distribution, plasticity characteristics are used to explain CBR characteristics. Prediction models are developed for estimation of CBR using the above characteristics with R2 values in the range of 0.42 – 0.49.

Keywords: CBR, Strength, Deformation.

[1]. A.A BELLO. "Regression analysis between Properties of subgrade lateritic soil. Leonardo journal of science, Issue 21, PP.99-108, 2012.
[2]. Agarwal, K.B and Ghanekar, K.D. (1970). Prediction of CBR from Plasticity Characteristics of Soil. Proceeding of 2nd South-east Asian Conference on Soil Engineering, Singapore, June-11-15, 1970, Bangkok: Asian Institute of Technology, 571-576.
[3]. IS 1498-1970 "Classification and Identification of Soils for General Engineering Purposes" Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.
[4]. IS 2720: Part 16: 1987 Methods of test for soils-Part 16: Laboratory determination of CBR, Bureau of Indian Standards, and New Delhi.
[5]. IS: 2720 (Part IV) Indian standard method of test for soils grain size analysis, Bureau of Indian standards, New Delhi.


Paper Type :: Research Paper
Title :: Synthesis, Morphology and Thermal Properties of Tin Nanoparticles on a Carbon Matrix
Country :: Russia
Authors :: A.V. Zaikovskii || M.A. Morozova || I.E. Naidenov || S.A. Novopashin
Page No. :: 47-53
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Tin nanoparticles on a carbon matrix were synthesized by the plasma-arc method. The synthesized material was characterized by the methods of transmission microscopy (TEM), X-ray phase analysis (XRD), and thermogravimetry (TGA). According to analysis of TEM images, tin nanoparticles are surrounded by a shell of material, less dense than tin, but denser than a carbon matrix. The size distribution functions of nanoparticles and their shells were measured. The average diameter of nanoparticles was 12 nm, and the thickness of shells was 3 nm. The melting point of nanoparticles and heat of phase transition were measured in accordance with the TGA data. It is shown that the synthesized material retains its properties at moderate overheating.

[1]. Jahns E. Microencapsulated phase change material. In: International Energy Agency Energy Conversation through Energy Storage Programm(ECES), Annex 10: Fourth Workshop 1999.
[2]. Zhang P, Ma ZW, Wang RZ. An overview of phase change material slurries:
[3]. MPCS and CHS. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews.2010;14:598-614.
[4]. Shin Y, Yoo D-I, Son K. Development of thermoregulating textile materials with microencapsulated phase change materials (PCM). II. Preparation and application of PCM microcapsules. Journal of Applied Polymer Science. 2005;96:2005-10.
[5]. Shin Y, Yoo D-I, Son K. Development of thermoregulating textile materials with microencapsulated phase change materials (PCM). IV. Performance properties and hand of fabrics treated with PCM microcapsules. Journal of Applied Polymer Science. 2005;97:910-5.


Paper Type :: Research Paper
Title :: Study and Performance Evaluation of 91kW Grid Interactive SPV System (Case Study)
Country :: India
Authors :: Ekta Maurya || Piyush Charan || Syed Hasan Saeed
Page No. :: 54-67
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In this paper, a Grid Interactive Solar Photovoltaic System is studied, which is of 91 kW system installed at BNLT building in Integral University, Lucknow. And this paper has collected data about the system‟s current, voltage, power, energy, temperature, etc. and also evaluated the reference yield, actual yield, performance ratio and has drawn graphs according to it; for January month to April month. The average performance ratio calculated for those four months is low for the system and it seems that this system needs some improvements, which can be tilt angle, maintenance, etc. and concentrating panel and CPC can also be deployed to increase the efficiency of the installed system.

Keywords: Photovoltaic (PV) Cell, Grid Interactive System (GIS), Performance Ratio (PR), renewable purchase obligations (RPOs), greenhouse gases (GHG).

[1]. Akash Kumar Shukla, K. Sudhakar∗, Prashant Baredar , "Simulation and performance analysis of 110 kWp grid-connected photovoltaic system for residential building in India: A comparative analysis of various PV technology", Energy Reports 2, pp 82–88, 2016
[2]. B. Shiva Kumar, K. Sudhakar, "Performance evaluation of 10 MW grid connected solar photovoltaic power plant in India‖ Volume 1, Pages 184-192, November 2015
[3]. G.Ravi Kumar, A.Hari Prasad, N.Satya Saketha, K.Saichandana , "A New Innovative Design principle of Grid Interactive Roof Top Solar Photovoltaic Power Generation", InternatIonal Journal of educatIon and applIed research, IJEAR, ISSN: 2348-0033 (Online) ISSN : 2249-4944 (Print), Vol. 4, Issue spl-1, Jan - June 2014
[4]. Jayanna Kanchikere , K. Kalyankumar , "An Analysis of Small Scale Grid Connected Rooftop Solar Power Generation-A Pilot Scheme", International Journal of Electronics Engineering Research, ISSN 0975-6450, Volume 9, Number 4, pp. 599-612, 2017
[5]. K. Agbossou, M. Kolhe, J. Hamelin, and T. K. Bose, "Performance of a stand-alone renewable energy system based on energy storage as hydrogen," IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 633–640, Sep. 2004.


Paper Type :: Research Paper
Title :: Modeling of rice crop biomass using Sentinel-1 backscatter coefficients: A Case Study
Country :: India
Authors :: Devansh Desai || Ankita Mandowara
Page No. :: 68-71
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Agricultural crops are among the most important sources of food for human being. The monitoring of crop growth stages, discrimination among various crop types and crop yield estimation essential for crop health status, insurance and planning. SAR (synthetic Aperture Radar) has tremendous potential to characterize vegetation due to higher sensitivity to vegetative structure, dielectric properties of the canopy, biomass There is wide gap exists to use SAR data for assessment of crops at local to regional scale. The optical domain has a severe limitation for agricultural monitoring in cloudy conditions and hence to overcome this limitations SAR is used for agricultural monitoring.............

[1]. Grant Wiseman, Heather McNairn, Saeid Homayouni, Jiali Shang. RADARSAT-2 Polarimetric SAR Response to Crop Biomass for Agricultural Production Monitoring. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, Vol.7, No.11, Nov.2014.
[2]. J.P. Wigneron, P.Ferrazzoli, A.Olioso , P.Bertuzzi and A.Chanzy.A Simple Approach To Monitor Crop Biomass from C-Band Radar Data. Remote Sensing of Environment 69:179-188(1999).
[3]. Joao M.B.Carreiras, Maria J. Vasconcelos, Richard M. Lucas. Understanding the relationship between aboveground biomass and ALOS PALSAR data in the forests of Guinea- Bissau (West Africa). Remote Sensing of Environment 121(2012) 426-442.
[4]. Julie Betbeder, Remy Fieuzal and Frederic Baup, Assimilation of LAI and Dry Biomass Data From Optical and SAR Images Into an Agro-Meteorological Model to Estimate Soybean Yield. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, Vol.9, No.6,JUNE 2016.
[5]. P.de matthaeis, P.Ferrazzoli, G.Schiavon, D. Solimini(1995). Crop type identification and biomass estimation by SAR. IEEE-0783-2567-2/95.


Paper Type :: Research Paper
Title :: Design of Intelligent Drip Irrigation Method Using Wireless Network
Country :: India
Authors :: R.Aarthi || Dr. A. Shaik Abdul Khadir
Page No. :: 72-76
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Agriculture is the largest livelihood provider in India. It also contributes a significant figure to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP).Irrigation plays an important role in agriculture. Nowadays World's water resources are vanishing, use of proper method for irrigation is very much important and it is well known that irrigation by drip is very economical and efficient. In the conventional drip irrigation system, the farmer has to keep watch continuously on irrigation timetable, which is different for different crops. In Automatic microcontroller based drip irrigation system irrigation will take place only when there will be intense requirement of water. Irrigation system uses valves to turn switches ON and OFF. These valves may be easily automated by using controllers and solenoids..............

Keywords: Analog to digital converter, Controller, Drip, Linear program, Wireless sensor network.

[1]. Shiv Sutar, Swapnita-Jayesh, Komal-Priyanka MIT-COE, Pune, Mahrashtra. ‖Irrigation and Fertilizer control for Precision Agriculture usingWSN: Energy Efficient Approach‖, International Journal of Advances in Computing and InformationResearches, ISSN: 2277-4068, Volume 1 No.1, January 2012.
[2]. Anurag D, Siuli Roy and Somprakash Bandyopad- hyay, Indian Insttute of Management Calcutta, Kolkata, India ‖Agro-Sense Precision Agriculture using sensor based wireless mesh networks‖.
[3]. J.Panchard, P.R.S.Rao, M.S. Sheshshayee, P. Pa- padimitratos and J.-P. Hubaux ,‖Wireless Sensor Networking for Rain-fed Farming Decision Support‖.
[4]. Dnyaneshwar Wavhal and Manish giri ―Automated intelligent wireless drip irrigation using linear programming‖ International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Engineering & Technology (IJARCET) Volume 2, Issue 1, January 2013, ISSN: 2278 – 1323,pp.1-5
[5]. S. R. Kumbhar, Arjun P. Ghatule, ―Microcontroller based Controlled Irrigation System for Plantation‖, Proceedings of the International MultiConference of Engineers and Computer Scientists 2013Volume II, March 2013.