September - 2018 (Volume-8 ~ Issue-9 ~ Part-3)

Paper Type :: Research Paper
Title :: Use of Geotextile Pavement in Road Construction In India
Country :: India
Authors :: Annu || Maiyanka Verma
Page No. :: 01-05

Geotextiles are generally used for straining and separation in road constructions, to prevent relocation and intermingling of materials, thus allowing free movement of water.Geotextiles act as a soupy mass between the two consecutive layers of soil. The geotextiles network should be enough stable such that no difficulty would arise during carrying, installation, and repair work in future. It is commonly divided into two categories: Woven and Nonwoven geotextiles. The functions performed by geotextiles are: drainage, sealing, filtration, separation, and reinforcement. The properties of geotextiles like, elongation, tensile strength, diffusive permeability, flexibility, etc are predominantly affected by its molecular weight. Polyamide, Polypropylene, Polyester, Polyethylene are the four main raw used in the fabrication of geotextiles.After 2005, The World Bank made geotextiles use mandatory in infrastructures funded by it," says Aditya Agarwaal, CEO of Jeevan Product which resulted in growing awareness about use of geotextiles.

Keywords: Geotextiles, separation, transmissivity, nonwoven geotextiles, woven geotextiles

[2] S. Palit (1988): "Geotextiles: A special reference to Jute‟, First Indian Geotextiles Conference on Reinforced Soil and Geotextiles, Vol.1, pp : G.15 - G.23.
[4] A Manual on use of Jute Geotextile in Civil Engineering (a publication of Jute Manufactures Development Council).

Paper Type :: Research Paper
Title :: Coincidence Point and Common Fixed Point In B-Metricspaces
Country :: India
Authors :: Neha Tiwari || Piyush Kumar Tripathi || Mukesh Kumar Singh || KaushalKumar Singh
Page No. :: 06-09

In this Paper, we proved coincidence and common fixed point in b- metric spaces. The presented theorems extend, generalize and improve result in the literature. Also, we introduce some definitions and examples the support the validity of our result.

[1] Aage,CT,Salunke JN, Some fixed point theorem for expansion onto mappings on cone metric spaces,(2011)
[2] A.Muraliraj and R .Jahir Hussain , Coincidence and fixed point theorems for expansion maps in d-metric spaces,(2013).
[3] Bakhtin ,IA: The contraction mapping principle in almost metric spaces. Funct.Anal,Gos. Ped. Inst.Unianowsk 30, 26-30(1989).
[4] B.K.Dass and S.Gupta,An extension of Banach's contraction principle through rational expression,6 (1975).1455-1485
[5] G.Jungck" Commuting mappings and fixed points,"(1996)

Paper Type :: Research Paper
Title :: Establishing Auto Gasification of Sewage Sludge
Country :: India
Authors :: Kamal Batcha B || Kirubakaran V
Page No. :: 10-13

The gasification is the process of thermo chemical conversion of biomass in to combustible gases, which can be used as a fuel. This paper gives an insight on gasification and establishing the auto gasification of sewage sludge. Auto Gasification is a thermo chemical process for converting solid combustible matter into gaseous fuel with the bio oxygen. The Bio oxygen is the oxygen content in the biomass. This process thus increases the specific calorific value of the producer gas.

Keywords: Auto gasification, Biomass, Gasification, TGA

[1] Agrawal, R.K.,1998,"Compositional analysis of solid waste and refuse derived fuels by Thermogravimetery method D 997".Annual book of ASTM standards, (Ed.C.M.Earnest), ASTM, Philadelphia, pp 259.
[2] Agrawal, R.K. and Sivasubramanian, M.S., 1987, "Integral approximation for non isothermal kinetics", AIChE Journal, 33, pp 1212-1214.

[3] Bridgwater, A.V., 1995, "The technical and economic feasibility of biomass gasification for power generation",Fuel, 74, pp 631-657.
[4] Chern, S.M., Walawender, W.P. and Fan, L.T., 1989,"Mass and Energy balance analyses of a downdraft gasifier",Biomass, 18, pp 127-151.
[5] Coats, A.W. and Redfern, J.P., 1964, "Kinetic parameters from thermogarvimetric data", Nature, 201, pp 68 – 69.

Paper Type :: Research Paper
Title :: P63, a marker of the proliferative basal layers of skin epithelia and the hair follicle
Country :: China
Authors :: Jinhuan Zong || Lijun Jiang || Shanfeng Chen || Chengye Ma || Hongjun Li || Dongliang Zhang
Page No. :: 14-20

In this experiment, we investigated that the P63 protein varied in normal hair cycle and hair regeneration process after hair follicles were thoroughly destroyed by cyclophosphamide. Regeneration of the destroyed cells is an optimal model for the research of cell proliferation. BrdU was used to identify which part of skin was destroyed and the new cells regenerated (without or with new cells) in this CYP-injection induced dystrophy. The new cells in hair cycle were also labeled by BrdU. P63-positive cells and new cells were identified at basal layers of skin epithelia and outer root sheath of hair, which provided an evidence for the research result that the p63 is a marker of the proliferative basal layers of skin epithelia. IHC results showed that less p63-positive cells appeared in the in the resting phase (telogen), and new cells also significantly..........

Keywords: p63 protein cyclophosphamide apoptosis 5-bromodeoxyuridine

[1] Plikus M V, Mayer J A, de la Cruz D, et al. Cyclic dermal BMP signalling regulates stem cell activation during hair regeneration. Nature 451 (2008) 340-344.

[2] Ito M, Yang Z X, Andl T, et al. Wnt-dependent de novo hair follicle regeneration in adult mouse skin after wounding. Nature 447 (2007) 316-U314.

[3] Wang J, Lu Z, Au J L S. Protection against chemotherapy-induced alopecia. Pharm. Res. 23 (2006) 2505-2514.

[4] Senoo M, Pinto F, Crum C P, et al. p63 Is Essential for the Proliferative Potential of Stem Cells in Stratified Epithelia. Cell 129 (2007) 523-536.

Paper Type :: Research Paper
Title :: Voltage Stability Control by Statcom under fault condition for wind Farms
Country :: India
Authors :: Manoj Yaram || P Balanagu
Page No. :: 21-25

Huge Wind generating stations (WGSs), close to the traditional power generating stations are the feasible solution for delivering clean energy. Although a series of technical provocation appear when grid penetration levels of wind power become high. Mainly the older WGSs are facing difficulties in ensuring high –grade power into the grid, as urge by the more and more stringent grid codes. However, wind flow by nature is intermittent. Thus a proven solution to these problems is to install FACTS devices in the system. From this, STATCOM is procure vogue, therefore a system with WGS and STATCOM is proposed. A statcom control architecture with the ability to correlate the control between the positive and the negative sequence of the grid voltage proposed. The results justify the effect of the positive- and the negative-sequence voltage compensation by a statcom on the operation of the FSIG-based wind farm. The theoretical studies are verified by simulations and measurement results on MATLAB.

Keywords: Induction generator, low-voltage ride through, statcom wind energy.

[1] M. Liserre, R. Cardenas, M. Molinas, and J. Rodriguez, ―Overview ofmulti-MW wind turbines and wind parks,‖ IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron.,vol. 58l;b, no. 4, pp. 1081–1095, Apr. 2011.
[2] F. Van Hulle and N. Fichaux, ―Powering Europe: Wind energy andthe electricity grid,‖ Eur. Wind Energy Assoc., Brussels, Belgium,Nov. 2010.
[3] M. Tsili and S. Papathanassiou, ―A review of grid code technical requirementsfor wind farms,‖ IET Renewable Power Gener., vol. 3, no. 3,pp. 308–332, Sep. 2009.

[4] M. Ali and B. Wu, ―Comparison of stabilization methods for fixedspeed wind generator systems,‖ IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 323–331, Jan. 2010.
[5] D. Soto and T. Green, ―A comparison of high-power converter topologiesfor the implementation of FACTS controllers,‖ IEEE Trans. Ind.Electron., vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 1072–1080, Oct. 2002.

Paper Type :: Research Paper
Title :: Gastric Bioaccessiblity Of Iron Fortified Maize Meal Products
Country :: Zimbabwe
Authors :: D.Chinofunga || D. Jaravaza || T. Usai || I. Matiringe || J.H. Serere
Page No. :: 26-30

The main focus of this study was to evaluate the bioaccessibility of iron in iron fortified maize meal products commonly consumed in Zimbabwe and its possible contribution to iron Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) in the vulnerable population. The maize meal was fortified with a 2.5 mg/100g Sodium iron (III) ethylenediamineteracetate (NaFe EDTA). Samples were drawn from various maize products Sadza, plain porridge, sour porridge and mahewu for biochemical analyses. In this study Lutens in vitro solubility method was used to compare the bioaccessibility of iron in maize secondary products. Inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer was used to assess total iron content in all samples. All analyses were done according to analytical Standards.............

[1] Standard treatment guidelines Nigeria (2008). Retrived from http//
[2] WHO. (2008). worldwide prevalence of anaemia 1993-2005: WHO Global database on anaemia.
[3] Salvador, E, M., Kruger, J., Cheryl M. E. McCrindle, R, I., Steenkamp, V. (2015) In Vitro Bioaccessibility of Ferrous Sulfate and Ferrous Fumarate from Fortified Cassava Mahewu. J Food Nutri Sci. Vol. 3, No. 5, pp. 180-186.
[4] Shirichena, L. (2016, August 22). Government calls for food fortification. The Herald, p. 4.

Paper Type :: Research Paper
Title :: A Comparison Study of Z-H Algorithm and Genetic Algorithm
Country :: India
Authors :: Parmita || Dr. Reecha Sharma
Page No. :: 31-35

A grey scale image is converted into binary image through the binarization method. The genetic algorithm is applied to optimizing the binarization threshold of binary image. In this research work, the basic algorithm is compared with the proposed algorithm and analyzed their parameters .The proposed algorithm is implemented in MATLAB and results are analyzed in terms of PSNR, MSE and Thinning rate. It is analyzed that proposed algorithm performs well in terms of all parameters.

Keywords: Image binarization, Gray scale , Genetic alogorithm, Z-H algorithm.

[1] Jeffrey GlaisterAlexander Wong and and David A. Clausi, "Segmentation of Skin Lesions From Digital Images Using Joint Statistical Texture Distinctiveness", 2014, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING, 61 (4), p1220-1230.
[2] Jialiang Peng and Bian Yang, "A novel Binarization Scheme for Real-valued Biometric Feature," 2017, IEEE.
[3] B.Vishnudharan and Mrs.K.Anusudha, "Reclamation of Information from Degraded and Damaged Document Images by Image Binarization Method," 2017, IEEE.
[4] Sabeenian R S, Paramasivam M E and Dinesh P M, "Appraisal of Localized Binarization Methods on Tamil Palm-leaf Manuscripts," 2017, IEEE.
[5] Xiaoyu Liu, Bi Zhang, "Phong Model Based Binarization and Its Application to Billet Images with Non-uniform Illumination," 2017, IEEE.

Paper Type :: Research Paper
Title :: Microstructuralevolution and mechanical behavior during annealing of aluminum deformed by equal channel angular pressing
Country :: Brazil
Authors :: Rachel Santos Mendes || Ana Carolina Ribeiro Duarte || Fabiane Roberta Freitas Da Silva || Jefferson Fabrício Cardoso Lins
Page No. :: 36-45

This study aims to characterize the microstructure and the evolution of the mechanical behavior after annealing of the AA1070 aluminum alloy cold pressed equal angular channels. The deformation was conducted via route A in five consecutive passes and the accumulated deformation was 5.95. The annealing was carried out at 200 ° C and 250 ° C for 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 45, 60 minutes. The starting material was derived from a slab of 610 mm thick chopped in multiple passes through hot rolling to final thickness of 32 mm. The microstructure of the material was characterized with the aid of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in the secondary electron mode. Vickers hardness tests were conducted in order to evaluate the mechanical behavior of the material after pressing and along the heat treatment...........

Index Terms: -------------

[1]. ESTRIN, Y.; VINOGRADOV, A. Extreme grain refinement by severe plastic deformation: A wealth of challenging science. ActaMaterialia. 2013; 61(3): 782–817.
[2]. VALIEV, R. Z.; LANGDON, T. G. Principles of equal-channel angular pressing as a processing tool for grain refinement. Progress in Materials Science. 2006; 51( 7): 881–981.
[3]. AZUSHIMA, A. et al. Severe plastic deformation (SPD) processes for metals. CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology.2008; 57(2): 716–735.
[4]. HOSEINI, M. et al. Thermal stability and annealing behaviour of ultrafine grained commercially pure titanium. Materials Science and Engineering A.2012; 532: 58–63.
[5]. ZHAO, F. X. et al. Effect of annealing treatment on the microstructure and mechanical properties of ultrafine-grained aluminum. Materials & Design. 2014; 53: 262–268.

Paper Type :: Research Paper
Title :: GPS Aided Power efficient Dynamic Source Routing in MANETs
Country :: India
Authors :: B. M. Parmar || Dr. Kishor G. Maradia
Page No. :: 46-52

Mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs) are multi-hop wireless communication networks formed dynamically on ad-hoc basis without fixed infrastructure and centralized administration. Successful communication between source and destination depends on quality of temporarily formed multi-hop link. Quality parameters for multi-hope link includes link life and link length. Aim of work presented in this paper is to improve link quality in terms of link life and link length. We have proposed GPS aided routing technique that finds shortest end to end path and adjusts transmission power of node based on calculated distance to next hop. Selection of shortest end to end path decreases end to end delay and average power consumption of node. To check suitability and efficiency of proposed routing technique we have modified well known Dynamic Source (DSR) routing protocol............

Keywords: GPS, DSR, MANETs, battery power, Haversine formula, end to end delay, control overhead,Energy consumption.

[1]. S. Basagni, I. Chlamtac, and V. R. Syrotiuk, "Dynamic source routing for ad hoc networks using the global positioning system," in Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, 1999. WCNC. 1999 IEEE, vol. 1. IEEE, 1999, pp. 301–305.
[2]. A. Boukerche, V. Sheetal, and M. Choe, "A route discovery optimization scheme using gps system," in Simulation Symposium, 2002. Proceedings. 35th Annual. IEEE, 2002, pp. 20–26.
[3]. Y.-B. Ko and N. H. Vaidya, "Location-aided routing (lar) in mobile ad hoc networks," Wireless networks, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 307–321, 2000.
[4]. S. Basagni, I. Chlamtac, V. R. Syrotiuk, and B. A. Woodward, "A distance routing effect algorithm for mobility (dream)," in Proceedings of the 4th annual ACM/IEEE international conference on Mobile computing and networking. ACM, 1998, pp. 76–84.
[5]. T. Thongthavorn, W. Narongkhachavana, and S. Prabhavat, "A study on overhead reduction for gps-assisted mobilead-hocnetworks,"inTENCON2014-2014IEEE Region 10 Conference. IEEE, 2014, pp. 1–5.

Paper Type :: Research Paper
Title :: Bending Analysis of Rectangular Thick Plate Using Polynomial Shear Deformation Theory
Country :: Nigeria
Authors :: Ibearugbulem, Owus M. || Ezeh, John C. || Ettu, Lawrence O. || Gwarah, Ledum S
Page No. :: 53-61

This paper presents bending analysis of all clamped (CCCC) rectangular thick plate using polynomial shape function in shear deformation theory. The theory presented herein is based on Ritz energy method and the displacement function based on polynomial function. The theory derived transverse shear stress from constitutive relation that satisfied zero shear stress condition on the top and bottom surfaces of the plate, hence like other higher order theories no shear correction factor is required. The total potential energy equation of a thick plate was formulated from the principle elasticity. The governing equations for determination of displacement coefficients were derived by subjecting the total potential energy equation to direct variation. This is the model from this study. All edges clamped rectangular thick plate was considered for numericalstudies. The results obtained herein for displacements and stresses were compares with previous works to show the sufficiency of this theory..............

Keywords: Shear deformation, shear correction factor, vertical shear stress, deflection, displacement, potential energy

[1] Ambartsumian, S. A. (1958), On the theory of bending plates, Izvotd Tech Nauk an Sssr, 5, pp 69–77
[2] Chikalthankar, S. B, Sayyad, I. I, .Nandedkar, V. M (2013).Analysis of Orthotropic Plate By Refined Plate Theory. International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology (IJEAT) ISSN: 2249 – 8958, Volume-2, Issue-6, pp. 310-315
[3] Daouadji, T. H, Tounsi, A, Hadji, L,Henni, A. H and El Abbes, A. B (2012). A theoretical analysis for static and dynamic behavior of functionally graded plates. Materials Physics and Mechanics 14 (2012) 110-128
[4] Daouadji, T. H, Tounsi, A. andBedia, El. A. A. (2013).A New Higher Order Shear Deformation Model for Static Behavior of Functionally Graded Plates.Advances in Applied Mathematics and Mechanics Adv. Appl. Math. Mech., Vol. 5, No. 3, pp. 351-364
[5] Goswami, S. and Becker, W. (2013). A New Rectangular Finite Element Formulation Based on Higher Order Displacement Theory for Thick and Thin Composite and Sandwich Plates. World Journal of Mechanics, 2013, 3, 194-201

Paper Type :: Research Paper
Title :: Semantic Segmentation Using Fully Convolutional Net: A Review
Country :: India
Authors :: Prisilla J || Iyyanki. V. Murali Krishna || Aruna. M
Page No. :: 62-68

Semantic segmentation has paved its way in predicting the models using dense pixel-wise prediction method apart from classification. The presented models for semantic partitions the image into semantically meaningful chunks and classifies each chunk into one of the predetermined classes. The presented model reduces the parameters to be trained and helps in up-sampling; it describes quality and accuracy and efficient mechanism. Deeper the layers are, helps in capturing the high-level semantic features from the previous convolutional layers.

Keywords: Conditional random fields, convolutional, pixel, semantic segmentation

[1] Alex Krizhevsky et. al, "Imagenet classification with deep convolutional neural networks," in Advances in neural information processing systems, 2012, pp. 1097–1105.
[2] K. Simonyan and A. Zisserman, "Very Deep Convolutional Networks for Large-Scale Image Recognition", arXiv preprint arXiv: 1409.1556, 2014.

[3] Szegedy et. al ,"Going deeper with convolutions," in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 2015, pp. 1–9.
[4] Vijay Badrinarayanan et. al, "SegNet: A Deep Convolutional Encoder-Decoder Architecture for Image Segmentation", arXiv: 1511.00561v3, 2016.
[5] Evan Shelhamer et. al, "Fully Convolutional Networks for Semantic Segmentation", arXiv: 1605.06211, 2016.
[6] A. Garcia-Garcia, "A Review on Deep Learning Techniques Applied to Semantic Segmentation", arXiv: 1704.06857, 2017.

Paper Type :: Research Paper
Title :: Some Characteristics and Classifications of Mathematical And Epidemic Models
Country :: India
Authors :: Dr.D.MuthuRamakrishnan || L.Jenathunnisha
Page No. :: 69-71

Mathematical models are important basic tools in basic scientific research in many areas of biology, including physiology, ecology, evolution, toxicology, immunology, natural resource management, and conversation biology. Mathematical biology may sound like a narrow discipline, but it encompasses all of biology and virtually all of stress of mathematical sciences, including Statistic, Operational research and scientific computing. In this paper we investigate and discuss the characteristics and classificationsof mathematical and epidemic models.

Keywords: Mathematical models, epidemic models, characteristic, classifications.

[1] Anderson, R.M. and May. R.M, "Infectious Disease of Human – Dynamics and control", New york: Oxford University
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[3] Bailey, N.T.J., "The Mathematical theory of Infectious Disease", London Griffin, Second Edition 1975.
[4] Herbert W. Hethcote, "The Mathematics of infectious disease", Volume 42, No.4 pp.599-653. December 2000.
[5] J.N.Kapur, " Mathematical Modelling", New age International Publishers, Second Edition,2015.

Paper Type :: Research Paper
Title :: Great Law of Thermodynamic (Entropy S + Counter-entropyS *) = 0
Country ::
Authors :: Yarosh Vsevolod S.
Page No. :: 72-87

Ludwig Boltzmann - the author of statistical Thermodynamics - discovered a simple law that postulates the high probability W of the real existence of Entropy S of the thermal energy of all bodies of the Universe.

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